Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). |
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and "other specific types".The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes.The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus. The rare disease diabetes insipidus has similar symptoms as diabetes mellitus, but without disturbances in the sugar metabolism (insipidus means "without taste" in Latin).
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are loss of weight, polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes.
Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis; type 1 should always be suspected in cases of rapid vision change, whereas with type 2 change is generally more gradual, but should still be suspected. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemi. A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day. It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test.According to the current definition, two fasting glucose measurements above 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) is considered diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.
To help maintain a healthy blood sugar level, individuals should regulate their meals. This means as much as possible, try to eat meals at the same time each day. It would also be best if they try to consume the same amount of food for every meal since after eating, a person's blood glucose escalates. If a person eats a huge meal one day and eats a light meal the next, his or her blood sugar level will become unstable. Also it would not be beneficial for those who have diabetes to skip meals.
It has been discovered that eating 5 to 6 small meals a day, is healthier than eating loads of food at one sitting.
Here are some more tips to help you prevent diabetes -
Eating More Vegetables and Whole Grains Will Help Prevent Diabetes
Medical findings have discovered that eating whole grain products regularly might just be what you need to prevent Diabetes. This is due to the fact that after eating grounded grain, for example: flour, pastas, pastries, etc., the body experiences an escalation in blood sugar. While on the other hand, eating whole grain products does not make the body sugar rise as much.Diabetes diet plan should include whole grain products, low fat and high fiber diet.
Maintain a Balanced Diet
This means a lot of fruits and vegetables, and not burgers and fries! Fried foods are high in calories and fat! A healthy diet includes: food rich in fiber, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
Consumption of poultry products should be regulated. The use of salt should also be measured. Also they should drink plenty of water.
It would not be a bad idea for people who have diabetes to list down all the foods that they eat per day. This is to keep track of all the food products they are consuming. So they would be aware of the types of nutrients that are going into their system. This will help them to maintain a balanced diet. Also, keeping a record would help individuals plan what types of meals they should be preparing in the coming days.
For the best possible method of regulating one's diet, individuals who have diabetes should consult a nutritionist. They will be able to provide a proper meal plan, which would be specifically designed to meet the needs of each and every individual!
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