In addition history about India to cultural material of this phase, found at excavated sites, in parts of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Karnataka are found catches of copper/bronze objects. As these have been found in hoards (about a thousand objects altogether from 85 sites in the above mentioned states) these sites were thought to represent a distinct Copper Hoard culture. At Saibai a site in Uttar Pradesh, a copper harpoon has been found in association with a pottery known as Ochre Colored Pottery (OCP). Though some of the other Copper Hoard sites have yielded OCP, the copper objects are not found in direct association with OCP. As more than a hundred sites have yielded this characteristic pottery in the Ganga-Yamuna doab, these sites are described as belonging to the OCP culture.
The OCP culture is succeeded by Black and Red Ware (BRW) and Painted Grey Ware (PGW) cultures, which are distinguished by diagnostic pottery types. In North Indian history, there is a distinct concentration of Painted Grey Ware sites in Haryana and Upper Ganga Valley, of which 30 have been excavated. Iron makes its appearance in the Painted Grey Ware culture, and in the ensuing phase, known as the Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP) culture, its use becomes more widespread. Starting from the sixth century B.C. we also see the beginnings of urbanization In Block 2, you have learnt about the antecedent stages and various aspects of Harappan culture and society. You have also read about its geographical spread and the reasons for its decline and diffusion. In this unit we shall learn about the post-Harappan, Chalcolithic, and early Iron Age Cultures of northern, western, central and eastern India. After reading this unit you will be able to know about: the geographical location and the adaptation of the people to local conditions, the kind of houses they lived in, the varieties of food they grew and the kinds of tools and implements they used, a the varieties of potteries wed by them, a the kinds of religious beliefs they had, and a the change occurring during the early Iron age.
A) Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the Indus people. They grew I wheat, barley, peas and in some places rice. They not only produced enough for themselves but also for trade. They did not irrigate their lands by canals. The annual
Flood provided enough moisture to grow crops. Fields were ploughed using a wooden
Plough share. We are not sure whether animals were used.
B) Domestication of Animals: On the basis of the Indus seals, it can be said that a large number of animals including goats, buffaloes, oxen, elephants, dogs and camels were domesticated. But the Harappans seem not to have been familiar with the horse.
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