Cancer starts as the cells in the body start to develop out of control. Cells in almost every part of the body can become cancer cells and spread to other parts of the body. The prostate is behind the bladder (the empty organ where the urine is stored) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Behind the prostate glands are termed seminal vesicles, which make up a lot of semen fluid. The urethra, a tube that extracts urine and sperm from the body from the penis, runs through the middle of the prostate. Prostate cancer starts when cells in the prostate gland begin to develop out of control The prostate is a gland that is found in males only. It makes some of the fluid that forms part of the sperm. At the baseline level, prostate cancer is caused by alterations in the normal prostate cell. DNA is the compound in our cells that makes up our genes that governs the activity of our cells. We generally look like our ancestors, because they are the source of our DNA. Yet DNA is more than just how we look at it. Some genes regulate the growth of our cells, split into new cells and die. Earlier, it was believed that the incidence of prostate cancer in India is far lower than in western nation, but with increased migration of rural population to urban areas, changing lifestyles, increased awareness, and easy access to medical facilities, more cases of prostate cancer are being found, and it is becoming clear that we are not far behind the trend from western nation. |
The people of India in general and those of the areas protected by the registries in particular have experienced rapid shifts in habits, nutritional habits and the socio-economic climate. Diagnostic and detection methods have advanced, and more of the population not only has access, but can afford the same. Substantial difference between the prevalence and incidence rates of prostate cancer, on the one hand, and morbidity and mortality rates, on the other, have caused others to believe that certain prostate cancers are harmless and that it would be best to stay undetected. However, if recent patterns in rising life expectancy persist, with the current age-specific prevalence, morbidity and death rates of prostate cancer, this condition will become a much greater public health issue in the future.
The most recent population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in various cities over the time span reveal that prostate cancer has ranked among the top ten leading cancer sites in several cities like Bangalore, Barshi, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Kamrup, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Kollam, Nagpur, Pune, Trivandrum and Wardha. The prostate is the second most prevalent cancer site in four PBCRS, namely Delhi Kolkata Nagpur and Thiruvananthapuram. It is also apparent from the table that the prevalence of prostate cancer is highest in metrocities such as Delhi (second most common cancer), Mumbai (3rd most common cancer), Kolkatta (second most common cancer), Chennai (4th most common cancer), Bangalore (third most common cancer) and Pune (second most common cancer) compared to smaller cities like Kollam, Bhopal, Nagpur and Wardha.
As far as various regions of India are concerned, prostate cancer has ranked among the top ten in all regions of North (Delhi—2nd most common), South (Trivandram—2nd most common), East (Kolkatta—2nd most common) and West (Mumbai—3rd most common). The incidence of PCa is comparatively low in some states, such as Gujrat (Ahmedabad and Wardha PBRC) and Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal PBCR). But the prevalence of prostate cancer is lowest in the north-eastern region of India. PBCRs from the state of Assam (Cachar District and Dibrugarh District) indicate the absence of prostate cancer among the top ten leading cancer sites, except the Kamrup district, where it is the 6th leading cancer site. Manipur state PBCRs, Mizoram County, Sikkim province, Meghalaya state, Tripura state and Nagaland reveal that PCa is not among the top ten leading cancer sites in these regions.
Urinating Difficulty Decreased strength in the flow of urinary Blood in semen Irritation in the pelvic region Bone pain Erectile dysfunction
Getting all of these signs does not mean that it is cancer, so whether one or more of them is seen for more than two weeks, the doctor must be seen and urgent health screening must be done. In certain cases, prostate cancer does not cause signs until it is advanced. For this cause, frequent tests with the Digital Rectal Test (DRE) and the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test are advised. Elevated PSA levels can signify disease, illness, inflammation or non-cancerous enlargement. Transrectal Ultrasound is used for further diagnosis. Biopsy specimens are tested to assess the Gleason Score for the grade of prostate cancer. Bone scan, CT, MRI or PET CT followed by Biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis. Men diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer may not need urgent treatment.
Only active surveillance is required in a few situations. Causes: For all kinds of cancer, it's not easy to identify the precise cause of prostate cancer. In certain cases, multiple factors may be involved, including genetics and exposure to environmental hazards, such as certain chemicals or radiations. At the end of the day, defects in your DNA or genetic material contribute to the proliferation of cancer cells. These mutations cause prostate cells to grow uncontrollably and abnormally. Abnormal or cancer cells begin to expand and divide until the tumor forms. If you have advanced types of prostate cancer, the cells will metastasize or abandon the initial tumor site and spread to other areas of the body.
Acinar adenocarcinoma Ductal adenocarcinoma Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer Squamous cell cancer Small cell prostate cancer Other rare cancers
Options for recovery include surgery (radical prostatectomy) or radiation therapy. Radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer includes the removal of the prostate gland, any underlying tissue, and a few lymph nodes. The Da Vinci Robotic Surgical Machine is used for treatment in some of the top cancer treatment facilities in the world. Radiation therapy can be done either by a linear accelerator, specifically hitting the tumor, or by Brachytherapy, which includes putting several rice-sized radioactive seeds in the prostate tissue and administering a low dose of radiation for a prolonged period of time.
The surgeon A member of the surgical team will tell you about: • the operation you are going to have • the benefits of having surgery • the possible risks • what to expect afterwards The anaesthetist The anaesthetist gives you anaesthetics and takes care of you through the process. They make sure you're fit enough to perform the surgery. The clinical nurse specialist
The nurse is testing your: • General wellness in general • Weight in weight • Pressure of the blood • Pulse • Temperature The nurse also tests what assistance you need and what care you need when you go home. They are your touch point and take care of you in your recovery. The physiotherapist: The physiotherapist will be evaluating how well you can walk around. They'll let the doctors know if there's something that could hinder your rehabilitation. The physiotherapist also teaches you to do leg and respiratory exercises to assist with rehabilitation following surgery. Learning how to do the drills beforehand makes it simpler afterward.
After the procedure:
After the operation until you wake up from surgery, the surgeon implants a catheter into your penis to help empty your bladder. The catheter must be in for one or two weeks. You may remain in the hospital for a couple of days, so you can usually go home for 24 hours. Your doctor or nurse will also have instructions on how to use your catheter to take care of your surgery site. Irrespective of the type of surgery you have undergone, the incision site is likely to be sore for a few days.
You can also encounter the following:
Blood in the urine Urinal frustration Difficulty in keeping urine Urinary tract infection Prostate inflammation
Such symptoms are common for a few days to weeks after recovery. Your recovery period will depend on the form and duration of surgery, your general health and whether you obey the advice of your doctor. You may be recommended to decrease levels of activity, including sex. Risks: Doctors also struggle to understand why one man develops prostate cancer and the other does not. We do know, however, that prostate cancer is not infectious. You can't catch it from anyone else.Research has shown that men with some risk factors are more likely to develop prostate cancer than others. A risk factor can increase the likelihood of developing a disease. Studies have reported the following risk factors for prostate cancer: Age: Age is the key risk factor for prostate cancer. This condition is unusual in men younger than 45 years of age. The likelihood to get it goes up dramatically as a man gets older. In the United States, the majority of men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years.
Personal history: The probability of a man is higher if his father or brother has prostate cancer. Race: Prostate cancer is more common in African American males than white males, including white Hispanic males. It's less common in Indian men in Asia and America. Certain prostate modifications men with cells labeled high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN) may be at high risk of developing prostate cancer. This prostate cells look irregular under a microscope. Diet: Some studies show that men who eat high diets of animal fat or meat could be at an elevated risk of developing prostate cancer. Men who eat a diet rich in fruit and vegetables could be at a lower risk Many of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, like family history, cannot be prevented. You can help protect yourself by keeping away from established risk factors whenever you can.
Why choose India for treatment/surgery?
India was recognized as a major global medical destination for prostate cancer surgery. Thousands of foreign patients from all over the world are coming to India for high-quality medical care and surgery conducted in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and under their budget costs. India has been identified as a new global medical destination for different forms of prostate surgery. India provides incredible cost savings in the various Prostate Cancer Surgery procedures, which are around 30 per cent lower than the prevailing US or UK prices. Even with travel costs taken into account, robust medical tourism packages still offer savings of thousands of dollars for major procedures. India is increasingly proving its prowess in the area of medical care. There is no shortage of international quality hospitals on Indian soil. A significant number of such hospitals are providing cancer surgery at an affordable rate. Best care with state-of-the-art therapies and reliable equipment is given in India to cure patients at the earliest opportunity. India offers a high quality of medical facilities with specialist multi-specialty cancer hospitals serving their expertise in various cancer surgeries. High Tech Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India provide its foreign patients with access to a team of surgical experts and a wide range of imaging and laboratory facilities.
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