bone cancer in early ages like leukemia. • Other normal cells of body are affected like hair-loss, blood-forming cells, cells lining digestive system can be affected after the chemotherapy. • The main disadvantage can include cancer reoccurrence, infections, injury to nearly areas of the surrounding tissue. ">The uncontrollable cell mutation in a mass of area is known as cancer. The bone cancer can affect the bones of any part of body or can start in the specific bone area and then can spread over and affect the other parts of body. Malignant tumor is a bone cancer. This cancer is most commonly found in the children and younger age groups and while the adults have metastatic cancer which spreads from the other tumors. Over more than 2,000 people have been diagnosed in US every year with this cancer. The market will grow at a CGAR of 5.4% by 2025. The treatment and effective medications will give rise and create high demand in global market. The cancer destroys the tissues by developing in the skeletal system. As the bones serve several purposes in body as preventing and supporting the internal organs, the bone cancer spreads over other organs too such as lungs and brain by the ribs and skull. Bone cancer are rare the term benign and metastatic are used for bone cancer most often w here benign is non-cancerous and metastatic mean cancerous. However, benign is most common cancer to be found than the metastatic. |
Types of bone cancers are divided in two categories like benign and malignant bone cancer and
benign or primary bone cancer are – Osteochondroma, Giant cell tumor, Osteoid osteoma, Osteoblastoma and Enchondroma.
Osteochondroma- The most common cancer and happens under the age of 20.
Giant cell tumor- This one can cancerous in rare cases, and usually happens is legs.
Osteoid osteoma- It happens in the long bones in the body and usually under age of early 20’s
Osteoblastoma- This grows in spine and long bones but mostly in adults. It is a rare tumor.
Enchondroma- A most common type of hand tumor with no symptoms which occurs in hands and feet.
Malignant or secondary bone cancer are- Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), Fibrosarcoma and Chordoma.
Osteosarcoma- Mostly happens to the teens and young adults, often found in other form in adults having Paget’s diseases of bone. It occurs around the knees and upper arms.
Ewing’s sarcoma- It happens in children between the age of 5 -20 years. The most site of this cancer are ribs, pelvis, leg and upper arm.
Chondrosarcoma- It happens in adults between the age of 40 -70 years. The most site of this cancer are hips, pelvis, leg, shoulder and arm, which begins from cartilage cells.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)- It is found in adults usually occurring at the age 50-60 years. Affects soft tissues, ligaments, tendons and fat. It is known as the most common soft-tissue malignancy. Fibrosarcoma- It is much rarer than other tumors, which is slightly common in males rather than females and commonly affect the soft tissues of leg behind knee at an age of 35-55 years.
Chordoma- chordoma is one of the rare tumors in this type of tumor average survival is 6 years after diagnosis. It is common in young adults having age of 30 years. Lower and upper spinal cord are affected by this tumor.
Treating the bone cancer is complex, the proper diagnosis is required for the better outcomes. Diagnosis can be done by X Ray, CT- SCAN, MRI or Angiogram. However, biopsy is done to remove the tissue to determine the bone cancer present. needle biopsy is also done in which surgeon makes the hole to remove the sample tissue by the needle-like instrument.
Treatment is done by knowing the following factors like the type, location, age, health and fitness, and the stage of the cancer. The treatment is done by the surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and sometimes the combination of all the treatments.
Surgery- The surgery aims to remove all the cancer tissue with a small area of healthy tissue surrounded by that cancerous region. For the limb sparing surgery or limb salvage surgery reconstructive surgery is required, surgeon may fit artificial bone by taking a bo ne by another part of body. Separation of limb might be also done by a surgeon for the removal of the cancer.
Radiation therapy- “High-energy X-Rays” are used to remove the cancer cells. The most common and standard treatment used for treating the Ewing sarcoma. To have more effective results, radiation therapy is used with other types of treatment of bone cancers.
Chemotherapy- The treatment is done by the medications to kill the cancer cells. The therapy is required for the new diagnosis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can be recommended by the doctor.
Cryosurgery- to destroy the cancerous cells the surgeon aims the cancer cells with liquid nitrogen so as to freeze the cells. The technique is sometimes also replaced by surgery.
Targeted therapy- Denosumab (Xgeva) drug is used in the treatment which stops the cancer cell to grow by interacting with the cells. It is a monoclonal antibody. It gives prevention to osteoclasts which can destroy the bone tissue and is a type of blood cell.
Before procedure involves the certain tests like CT-Scan, MRI, PET, X-Rays, Bone biopsy.
Computerized Tomography CT-Scan is done to take the 2-D and 3-D X-ray images of the area where the bone cancer. Bone scan is done by the liquid that contain radioactive material is given through intravenous into the vein. In abnormal areas the detection is done by scanner and image is captured in special film.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging “MRI” uses a magnetic field and radio waves through a coil that is slide by the technician. The detailed image is taken of the body.
Nuclear medicine imaging is used in Positron emission tomography-scan where 3- D images are generated by computer analysis of functional processes of human body.
X-Ray detects the damaged that has been caused by the cancer and new bone cells growth in nearby areas of tumor. The surgeon gets the clear picture to decide the prognosis of disease and to proceed for treatment.
Bone Biopsy is used to take out the sample of tissues by target bone through inserting a long thin needle into the bone. It is known as the best method to diagnose bone cancer.
After procedure requires precautions in case om amputation, physical therapy and other rehabilitative therapies are most required and the regular follow up is also mandatory as any new symptom arises like swelling or bone pain require consulting a doctor is must and all other factor like regular physical examinations, blood tests, imaging studies as per doctor suggests. In some cases when surgeon do curettage the tumor is scrapes out which causes a hole in the bone and is treated after the remove of tumor the treatment is done by surgeon of nearby bone tissue to kill the remaining tumor, this can also be done by bone cement or cryosurgery.
• The people having Paget’s disease can have high risk factor of getting bone cancer. • A patient with a previous bone marrow transplant might affect with bone cancer. • Hereditary retinoblastoma, eye cancer in children have risks. • Radiation exposures for past radiation surgery for some other cancer treatment or diagnosis. • The pain in the bones at an early age or for a long period of time. Pros
The best thing about the treatment of bone cancer is the pain relief, helps in preventing complications and improving the quality of life. A healthy life style builds-up.
• Damage to the soft tissues, fatigue, loss of appetite, and damage can cause by radiation therapy. • The risk of other can be possible for the children getter bone cancer in early ages like leukemia. • Other normal cells of body are affected like hair-loss, blood-forming cells, cells lining digestive system can be affected after the chemotherapy. • The main disadvantage can include cancer reoccurrence, infections, injury to nearly areas of the surrounding tissue.
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