Colorectal cancer is cancer that affects the massive intestine (colon) and rectum. it's the second leading explanation for death from cancer within the US. When watching India, the western world have a better number of latest cases, but surprisingly in last decade in India also colorectal cancer is increasing rapidly thanks to poor dietary habit, lack of physical activity, obesity, increased alcohol consumption, and chronic smoking. Now in India, colorectal cancer has been ranked 5th leading explanation for cancer death. In the last decade, it had been noticed within the US that the colorectal cancer death rate decreasing mainly thanks to increased awareness about colorectal cancer in society and increased voluntary screening for colorectal cancer that allows early detection and removal of polyp before they reach cancer. As compared to the western world although we are having a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, unfortunately, associated with a higher death rate as most cases are usually diagnosed in advanced stages only. |
The good news about colorectal cancer is that nearly all cancer arises from polyps, which are a non-cancerous stage. This polyp exists within the colon a few years before they address cancer. Thus if you develop colonic polyp and that they are removed timely, It decreases the risk for the development of cancer. albeit polyp turns into cancer but if diagnosed within the early stage it's curable through keyhole surgery and will cause normal life. Unfortunately, if carcinoma progresses and invades the deeper layers, the prospect of survival decreases but there's still a more 50% chance of cure with multi-disciplinary treatment that has keyhole surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. But if colorectal cancer had spread beyond, people often succumb within a couple of years.
Cancer altogether its forms is rising worldwide. In India, while the prevalence of colorectal cancer is less than in western countries, it's the seventh leading explanation for mortality. As per the recent data provided by Globacan India 2018, over 27,000 new cases are registered last year with a mortality of around 20,000 patients. The colon and rectum, which constitute the lower part of the gastrointestinal system, are a neighborhood of the lower intestines that aid in absorbing water from the stools and storing them until movement, respectively. “Development of precancerous polyps originating from the colon or rectum (that usually have the common symptoms) results in the event of colorectal cancer. Until now, carcinoma wont to be a disease that affects people after the age of 50, but within the last decade, there has been a pointy increase in the number of cases among the younger population.
Timely diagnosis is very important to choose the course of treatment. Many cancers, like the colon and rectum, are extensively researched and thus are often treated well if diagnosed on time. Cancer of the colon is taken into account to be the third commonest cancer diagnosed in both men and ladies. Ideally, screening for carcinoma should begin at the age of 40 in healthy adults, but thanks to poor lifestyle habits among youngsters it's quite likely to strike early. With extensive surveillance, maintaining an ideal weight, and consuming high fiber content, the incidence of carcinoma are often controlled.
Systems Most early-stage colorectal cancer has no symptoms in the least. But few patients may accompany generalized weakness and low hemoglobin level. In the late stage patients present with pain within the abdomen, abdominal mass, blood within the stool, thin stool, incomplete evacuation, and new-onset constipation. Symptoms like fatigue, weakness, change in bowel habits, diarrhea or constipation, bloodstains in stool, sudden weight loss amid abdominal cramps, and bloating should never be ignored. Though the symptoms could also be a sign of other digestive disorders, it's advisable to rule out the chances of carcinoma at the earliest. What are the Causes of Colon Cancer? There are several causes for colorectal cancer also as factors that place certain individuals at increased risk for the disease. There are known genetic and environmental factors. The people in danger for colorectal cancer: • The biggest risk factor is age. carcinoma is rare in those under 40 years. the speed of colorectal cancer detection increases after the age of 40. Most colorectal cancer is diagnosed in those over 60 years. • Have a mother, father, sister, or brother who developed colorectal cancer or polyps. When quite one loved one has had colorectal cancer, the danger to other members could also be three-to-four times higher of developing the disease. This higher risk could also be thanks to an inherited gene. • Have a history of benign growths of like polyps, that are surgically removed. • Have a previous history of colon or rectal cancer. • Have disease or condition linked with increased risk. • Have a diet low in fiber and high in fat.
What are sorts of Colon Cancer? The Types of carcinoma are as under: • Adenocarcinomas: These are the foremost common sort of carcinoma and originate in glands. They account for about 90-95 percent of all colorectal Cancers and have two subtypes, Mucinous and seal ring cells. The Mucinous subtype comprises about 10-15 percent of Adenocarcinomas while the seal ring cell subtype comprises but 0.1 percent of Adenocarcinomas. • Leiomyosarcomas: this sort of carcinoma occurs within the smooth muscle of the Colon. Leiomyosarcomas account for fewer than two percent of colorectal Cancers and have a reasonably high chance of metastasizing. • Lymphomas: These are rare and are more likely to start within the rectum than within the Colon. However, lymphomas that start elsewhere within the body are more likely to spread to the Colon than to the rectum. • Melanomas: this sort of carcinoma is rare. Usually, it results from a melanoma that started elsewhere then spread to the Colon or rectum. Melanomas account for fewer than 2% of colorectal Cancers. • Neuroendocrine Tumors: This tumor is split into two main categories: aggressive and indolent.
Risk Factor What are the main risk factors for developing colorectal cancer? Apart from being genetic (which may only have 15-20 percent chances of affecting subsequent generation), poor lifestyle habits are major contributing factors that increase the danger of developing carcinoma up to 3 times higher, says the doctor. 1. Poor diet: Many studies are implicational the very fact that regular consumption of a diet low in fiber and high in fat is attributing to the increase in carcinoma cases. Typically, Indian corporate and young professionals follow a western diet that's low in fiber and high in fat and calories. Also, the danger doubles in people that consume diets high in meat and processed meat. 2. Physical inactivity: it's advised for everybody to a minimum of devote 5-6 hours every week for exercise or any quiet physical activities, the absence of which has higher chances of developing carcinoma. A poor, inactive and sedentary lifestyle causes you to highly susceptible to such cancers and also affects overall health. 3. Lifestyle disorders: Obesity and diabetes not only raise the probabilities of developing carcinoma but as compared to an individual with normal weight, patients with higher BMI or with insulin resistance have an increased risk of mortality thanks to carcinoma. 4. Smoking and bingeing on alcohol: Alcoholics and chain-smokers have an elevated risk of carcinoma. abandoning smoking and restricting alcohol intake reduces the probabilities of carcinoma greatly.
• Older age • Familial History of colorectal cancer. • Environmental factors like diet and lifestyle, mainly high fat more meat, and low fiber. • Obesity à50 to 80% more likely in obese people. • Chronic smoking and alcohol consumption. • Known case of colitis and Chron’s disease
Treatment: How is it treated? Early detection is extremely important to cure carcinoma. due to modern targeted management, including planned surgery, chemo, and radiotherapy, the outlook for such cancers has changed significantly. Surgical Intervention – differing types of treatment are available for patients with carcinoma counting on the stage, whether the disease has recurred, alongside the patient’s health and age. Surgery is that the commonest treatment for all stages of carcinoma. In ideal situations, where the cancer is found at an early stage, a doctor can remove the tumor with a colonoscopy. Most of the time, however, colon surgery is required. Also, counting on the age and health of a patient, a laparoscopic colectomy is often done to eliminate cancer. It surely avoids an enormous incision on the abdomen and allows early recovery from the operation and an early return to figure for young patients. The colon is so frequently taken without any consideration that it's causing problems to a variety of individuals, especially the younger generation. Lifestyle and diet play a crucial role. just like the heart, liver, and kidney, the colon deserves tons more attention than it gets in our modern-day world.
Within the present era, colorectal cancer is100% preventable, treatable, and beatable. Colorectal cancer is often cured if it's far away from the body before it spreads to other organs; • If the polyp is often cured without surgery. • If early-stage cancer is often cured with keyhole surgery. • If a complicated stage are often treated with keyhole surgery along with side chemotherapy and radiation • Even metastatic disease with spread to the liver is often managed alright with newer drugs followed by keyhole surgery.
Thanks to advancements in medical technology, through keyhole surgery we can perform rectal cancer surgery with no stoma in additional than 95 lawsuits.
SCREENING TOOL: We would advise a traditional person without risk to do a colonoscopy starting at the age of fifty and to repeat every 10 years. This will reduce up to 95% chance of getting cancer. But a too high-risk person like, familial cancer history or having IBD we recommend trying to colonoscopy from the age of 40 years or ten years before they reach the age of their loved one who developed cancer. Unfortunately, in India, but 5% of adults are screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.
How do reduce risk
We recommend, • To adhere to a healthy diet, low fat, high fiber, fruits, and vegetables. • Red meat should be limited to but two servings per week. • Regular exercise – 45 minutes of moderate activity per day. To conclude we will say that sensible modification of diet and lifestyle will decrease the 70% risk of colorectal cancer. If you're 50 years old or more call your doctor today to schedule a colonoscopy and unfortunately if have colorectal cancer get treated with keyhole surgery for a far better chance of cure.
Who gets colorectal cancer? Anyone can get colorectal cancer. CRC is that the third most ordinarily diagnosed cancer and therefore the second commonest explanation for cancer death within us, with over 150,000 new cases diagnosed annually. quite 50,000 people die from it annually. Although colorectal cancer can strike at any age, 91 percent of the latest cases and 94 percent of deaths occur in individuals older than 50. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer is quite 50 times higher in people aged 60-79 than in those younger than 40.
Why is screening for colorectal cancer important? By detecting cancer early when it's most treatable Both men and ladies should undergo testing for the disease beginning at age 50. People with a high risk for CRC and people with a case history should talk with their doctor about being screened at an earlier age. A study by leading cancer groups found that colorectal cancer deaths have declined nearly five percent (2002-2004), partially thanks to prevention through screening and therefore the removal of precancerous polyps.
What is a polyp? Polyps are mushroom-like growths that form when cells lining the colon grow, divide and reproduce in an unhealthy, disorderly way. Polyps can become cancerous over time, invading the colon wall and surrounding blood vessels, and spreading to other parts of the body. How are you able to prevent colorectal cancer? See your doctor for yearly screenings if you're aged 45* or older. make certain to take care of a diet low in fat and high in fruits, vegetables, and fiber. Get regular exercise and avoid cigarette smoking. Keep alcohol consumption carefully. carcinoma screening tests can identify and permit removal of pre-cancerous polyps and stop the event of cancer. *In 2018, secondary to new data on the increased risks of carcinoma in those under 50, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery changed recommendations to think about starting screening at age 45.
What are the screening tests for colorectal cancer?
Screening is completed on individuals who don't necessarily have any signs or symptoms which will indicate cancer. If symptoms exist, then diagnostic workups are done instead of screening. These are the tests recommended for colorectal cancer screening and a few general pros and cons for each:
Stool biopsy (fecal occult blood test--FOBT):
This test is employed to seek out small amounts of hidden (occult) blood within the stool. A sample of stool is tested for traces of blood. People having this test will receive a kit with instructions that specify the way to take stool samples reception. The kit is then sent to a lab for testing. If the test is positive, further tests are going to be done to pinpoint the precise explanation for the bleeding. A rectal exam within the doctor’s office may examine for occult blood, but this is often NOT considered adequate for colorectal cancer screening. The test should only be done with a take-home kit.
A newer quite stool biopsy is understood as FIT (fecal immunochemical test). it's just like the FOBT, maybe even easier to try to do, and it gives fewer false-positive results.
PROS: • Simple • Cost-effective • Done reception CONS: • Must be done yearly • Least effective means of detecting cancer • Viewed as unsanitary by some • Patient must retrieve samples of stool within the bowl • All positive results MUST BE EVALUATED WITH A COLONOSCOPY Flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex-sig): A sigmoidoscope may be a slender, lighted tube about the thickness of a finger. it's placed into the lower part of the colon through the rectum. this enables the physician to seem at the within of the rectum and lower a part of the colon for cancer or polyps. This exam only evaluates about one-third of the colon.
The test has usually avoided any sedation, so it is often uncomfortable, but it shouldn't be painful. Before the test, you'll get to take an enema or other prep to wash out the lower colon. PROS: • Does not require an active bowel prep • Does not require sedation CONS: • Can only examine the lower third of the colon, the opposite two-thirds of the colon aren't examined Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy allows for an entire evaluation of the colon and the removal of probably precancerous polyps. it's the sole CRC screening tool that's both diagnostic and therapeutic. an entire bowel cleansing is required before the exam. The procedure uses a colonoscope, a tube with a light-weight, and a video camera on the top, which allows the doctor to ascertain the whole colon. If a polyp is found, the doctor can remove it immediately. The polyp is typically removed with small biopsy forceps or a loop of wire (snare) that's advanced within a channel within the colonoscope. The polyp is then sent to the pathology lab for analysis. If anything looks abnormal, a biopsy could be done. to try to do this, biopsy forceps are placed within the colonoscope and a little piece of tissue is removed. The tissue is shipped to the lab for evaluation. This test is usually through with sedation and is well-tolerated. you'll tend medicine that's injected through a vein to form you are feeling relaxed and sleepy.
PROS: • Examines the whole colon, making this the foremost thorough method for evaluating the colon and rectum • High detection rate for polyps, including small polyps, and skill to get rid of them immediately during the procedure • Given the “Gold Standard” rating in particular other screening options by American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), the American Cancer Society (ACS), and therefore the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). CONS: • Requires an entire bowel prep the night before to cleanse the colon Barium enema with air contrast: A chalky substance, which shows abreast of X-ray, is given as an enema. Air is then pumped into the colon causing it to expand. this enables X-ray films to require pictures of the colon. Laxatives must be used the night before the exam to wash the colon.
PROS: • Done without sedation • Very low risk CONS: • Uses X-ray radiation • Can miss larger polyps and growths (over 50 percent polyps ³ 1 cm, and 15 percent of cancers) • If polyps are found, the patient MUST BE FOLLOWED UP WITH A COLONOSCOPY CT COLONOGRAPHY (also mentioned as virtual colonoscopy) A small tube is placed within the rectum and air is pumped into the colon to inflate the bowel. Then a special CT scan is employed to image the colon. Recent studies show that it's effective in identifying medium to large polyps, but is ineffective in identifying small polyps. CT colonography could also be best for low-risk patients who cannot undergo or who failed a standard colonoscopy. an equivalent bowel prep as a conventional colonoscopy is required and it doesn't use sedation.
PROS: • Examines the whole colon • High detection rate for a medium to large polyps • Low risk CONS: • Air distention of the bowel are often uncomfortable • Ineffective in the detection of small polyps • Uses X-ray radiation • If polyps or other abnormalities are found, A COLONOSCOPY MUST BE PERFORMED • Is not covered by Medicare as an initial screening test • Is not recommended by ASGE screening guidelines For people eligible for Medicare, this is often what's covered: • Stool biopsy (FOBT or FIT) annually for those 50 and over • Barium enema with air contrast instead if a doctor believes that it's nearly as good as or better than flex-sig or colonoscopy. • Virtual colonoscopy isn't covered by Medicare as an initial screening test.
Best Hospitals For carcinoma Treatment And Surgery In India
The top hospitals for carcinoma surgery in India are equipped with state of the art diagnostics to supply a good range of cancer treatments. Our best doctors for carcinoma in India will evaluate and discuss the findings to chart out the optimal plan of prostatic adenocarcinoma treatment for every patient supported by established national and international guidelines and protocols.
India has been recognized as a replacement emerging global medical destination for carcinoma Treatment and Surgery. A sea of foreign patients from all across the planet come to India for medical treatments and surgeries of top quality delivered as practiced within the developed nations just like the US, UK, or any a part of the western world which too at the foremost affordable costs. The best carcinoma Hospitals in India are well equipped with the foremost advanced medical treatment and techniques. they need the foremost extensive diagnostic and imaging facilities including Asia’s most advanced MRI and CT technology. These Hospitals offer you most of the medical services and treatment maintaining the international benchmarks.
The top Indian carcinoma Surgeons performing different procedures of carcinoma Treatment and Surgery in India are highly qualified, skilled with a few years of experience, and are affiliated with many renowned medical organizations. India provides the services of the foremost leading doctors and carcinoma Surgery professionals at a reasonable cost budget within the following cities:
Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Pune, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon Chandigarh
Colon Cancer Treatment Cost Comparisons with other countries India is that the most preferable destination for patients who are trying to find low-cost carcinoma Surgery / Treatment. the value of carcinoma Surgery / Treatment in India is usually a fraction of the value for an equivalent procedure and care within the US and other developed countries. Comparing carcinoma Surgery / Treatment cost in India with an equivalent treatment procedure in other countries, the worth for surgery would be 30-50% lower. the value can vary counting on the sort of surgery required and other medical conditions of a patient. The costs of the carcinoma Surgery / Treatment supported the sort of surgery required in various countries within the chart/table is given below. the worth comparison is given in USD.
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