Are there one God or multiple God? |
Quran provides the answer to this question in a small chapter or Surah of the Quran. This is 112th chapter of the Qur’an, it is called Sura e Ikhlas or chapter of Pure Sincerity.
This chapter is a very short but none the less very profound.
Once polytheist of Makkah asked prophet Muhammad (PBUH), tell us about the lineage of your Lord, they further asked, “Is your Lord made up of gold, silver or pearls?” In response, God Almighty revealed this chapter. Though this chapter was revealed in response to some questions, this chapter highlights the most fundamental rule of Islamic theology in very clear language. It explains why Islam does not permit associating anyone or anything with Allah in any capacity.
This surah emphasizes that Allah is Ahad…means… One and only…there is no one like Him, who has same attributes and power.
The chapter has four verses, they are,
Say, "He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is (He) begotten, Nor is there to Him any equivalent."
Now we will elaborate on each verse separately. 1.Say,"He is Allah, [who is] (Ahad) One and only,
First verse starts with the word say, is a command to prophet, say - “to declare”, “to openly announce something in a strong and decisive manner, so that every person becomes fully aware of it and there remains no room for further arguments. Allah --- is the proper noun for God. Allah is Ahad …..means, single one, an individual by Himself, that has no second. He is unique, singular and sole entity. Further, Ahad means, there is nothing that is comparable,… no competitor, no opposite possible, He has no affiliate, no associate, no second. This oneness of God is very unique to Islam, Islam negates anyone sharing any attribute or power along with Allah in most clear terms. Oneness of God is the central doctrine of Islam, it is known as ‘the Tauhid’.
2. Allah the (Samad) means Eternal Refuge.
Samad also means someone who does not need anyone, no one can overpower, no one can outdo him…who has no blemish, no faults…. As Samad… The one to whom every creation turns for every need of theirs and who does not need anyone.… He fulfils all their needs and He is enough in Himself…He does not need any one.
Another meaning is the someone whom you make your goal….you aspire to please him.
3. He neither begets nor is begotten,
He did not give birth to anyone nor was He given birth by anyone… Allah negates He being a child of someone or He having a child…This is an immensely important statement, as this proves that existence and power of Allah are His own, He does not require anyone for His support. Not having kids is the shortcoming for human but it is a glory to Allah.
Any idea of Him taking birth or having a son, daughter or family is completely rejected here.
4. Nor is there to Him any equivalent."
Kuffu …means spouse, counterpart or someone equally good (compatible)…or at par with you, in skills, intelligence, power, status, ranking and so on…All the creations have counterpart but Allah does not have any. There is nothing remotely similar to Allah, we cannot imagine Allah. Every one other than Allah will have counterpart –Kufu but not Allah.
This chapter sheds light on essence of Allah. Existence, power and knowledge of Allah are His own. Everything else acquires existence from Him. Everyone requires Him and He is sufficient for everyone but He does not need anyone. Whatever little power or knowledge possessed by anyone or anything is acquired from Him.
Life of a Muslim is firmly based on this truth. Once we understand this truth our hearts are purified and cleared of all confusions, we experience the freedom from all bondages.
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