Floods can create environmental problems if precautions are not taken to minimize pollution and health risks. Although skin contact with flood water does not, by itself, pose a serious health risk, health hazards are a concern when waters become contaminated. |
Flood waters may contain fecal material, associated bacteria and viruses.
Water-borne risks Flood waters and water damage from this emergency will pose special problems for the thousands of people with existing lung disease and may increase the likelihood of the development of lung disease. Water damage from rains associated with a hurricane can pose risks to the public well outside of the floodwater area.
Standing water remaining from any flood is a breeding ground for microorganisms. Bacteria, viruses, and mold can become airborne and be inhaled, putting people at risk for lung disease. With the reports of sewage and toxins in the water, the floodwaters here will likely exacerbate the growth of microorganisms. Even when the flooding is due to a fairly clean source, such as rain water, the growth of these microorganisms can cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The greatest health risk for the general public in this emergency may come from water-borne microorganisms and toxins. However, even after the water recedes, the contaminants, bacteria, viruses and mold left behind pose a risk to those with preexisting lung disease. Exposure to these microorganisms and toxins may increase the risk of developing lung disease. In addition, the time spent in large group housing may increase the risk of spread of infectious diseases, such as influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Damp buildings and furnishings promote the growth of microorganisms, dust mites, cockroaches and mold, which can aggravate asthma and allergies and may cause the development of asthma, wheeze, cough and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible persons. After this emergency, contaminants and microorganisms may be inhaled during clean up efforts, which also add to lung disease complications. Clean up efforts will need to protect the workers and occupants from exposure to airborne particles and gases. The physical stress of dealing with the flood may also put a strain on people who are already ill or the elderly, providing an opportunity for respiratory infections and other sicknesses to arise. Much of the damaged materials and furnishings in homes and buildings will have to be discarded because of the spread of contaminated water. Simply drying out the water will not remove the contaminants or the microorganisms. After the flood or water damage, cleaning up is imperative. Materials which can be cleaned must be cleaned thoroughly. Materials which cannot be cleaned or are damaged beyond use must be discarded. Excess moisture indoors poses an indoor air quality concern for the following reasons: Areas with this high level humidity and moist materials provide an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms, which could result in continued or additional health hazards such as allergic reactions. Coming into contact with air or water that contains these microorganisms can make a person sick. Long-term high levels of humidity can foster growth of dust mites, which can cause asthma and trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks. Although the clean up process can take a long time, it is necessary to protect health. These are tasks that must be done:
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