Black garbage flies, found in large numbers around poultry facilities, are shiny bronze-black and are a little smaller than house flies.Unlike the house fly and little house fly, black garbage flies tend to stay on their food source at night rather than rest on the ceiling or on outdoor vegetation. |
While black garbage fly larvae have been known to exterminate house fly populations under extremely wet conditions, they cannot generally be considered beneficial because of their large numbers on the farm and their ability to disperse as adults into nearby communities.
Producers must monitor fly populations on a regular basis to evaluate their fly management program and to decide when insecticide applications are required. Accurate insecticide and application rate records must be kept. Insecticides can play an important role in integrated fly management programs; however, improper timing and indiscriminate insecticide use, combined with poor manure management, poor moisture control, and poor sanitation practices, will increase fly populations and the need for additional insecticide applications. Although most fly insecticides are toxic to predators and parasitoids and can result in their destruction if used indiscriminately, selective application of insecticides can avoid killing these beneficials.
Space sprays containing synergized pyrethrins provide a quick knockdown of adult flies in an enclosed air space. Because space sprays have very little residual activity, resistance to these insecticides is still relatively low among fly populations in the Northeast. Unfortunately, resistance has become a rather severe problem in poultry operations where pyrethrins were applied with automated dispensing systems. These poultry producers experienced loss of effective fly control in only one fly season. The key to successful fly management with automated dispensing systems is to use them sparingly. If you must use an insecticide, pyrethrins are currently your best choice for use as a space spray in an IPM program.Treating building surfaces with residual sprays has been a very popular fly control strategy over the years.
Unfortunately, exceptionally high levels of fly resistance to insecticides used as residual sprays are now very common. Residual spray materials must be used sparingly and only as a last resort to control fly outbreaks that cannot be managed with other techniques.
The keys to cultural/physical control are moisture management, sanitation, and manure removal. The manure moisture level is the most important factor in fly control. Moist poultry manure is highly attractive to adult flies and provides ideal conditions for fly controls development.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Proper cultural/physical control practices encourage poultry manure accumulations containing large populations of beneficial predators and parasitoids that can suppress house fly populations. In the Northeast, macrochelid mites and hister beetles are the major predators in caged-layer operations. Parasitoid populations are present at densities lower than those of the two predators.
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