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Hiv infection and transmission rates double with hormonalcontraceptive usage by 123wert sdfsf





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Hiv infection and transmission rates double with hormonalcontraceptive usage by
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Hiv infection and transmission rates double with hormonalcontraceptive usage


 
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Women who use a hormonal contraceptive have double the risk ofbecoming infected with HIV-1, and are also twice as likely to passthe infection on to their sexual partner, researchers from theUniversity of Washington, Seattle, reported in The Lancet Infectious Diseases . The raised risk is especially notable among those usinginjectables. The authors informed that over 140 million adultfemales around the world use hormonal contraception , including long-acting injectables or oral pills. Co-author, Jared Baeten said: "These findings have important implications for family planning andHIV-1 prevention programmes, especially in settings with high HIV-1prevalence." Lead author, Renee Heffron said: "Recommendations regarding contraceptive use, particularlyemphasising the importance of dual protection with condoms and theuse of non-hormonal and low-dose hormonal methods for women with orat risk for HIV-1, are urgently needed." A significant number of females in sub-Saharan Africa who are HIV positive use hormonal contraception. HIV susceptibility linked tohormonal contraction had been studied before, but with inconsistentand inconclusive results, the authors wrote.



The aim of this study was to determine whether using hormonalcontraception raises a woman's risk of HIV infection andtransmitting it to male sexual partners. It involved 3,790 couples,with one partner infected with HIV-1 and the other not(serodiscordant couples); they were all heterosexual. Theindividuals came from Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa,Rwanda, Kenya and Botswana. The study found that: A woman's risk of becoming infected with HIV-1 doubled if she wason hormonal contraception There was a more significant risk for those taking an injectablehormone contraceptive (DMPA) Those on injectable contraceptives were twice as likely to transmittheir HIV-1 infection to their male sexual partners, compared towomen not on hormonal contraception The authors wrote: "To our knowledge, ours is the first prospective study to showincreased HIV-1 risk in male partners of HIV-1 infected women usinghormonal contraception. (conclusion) Data on HIV-1 risk associated with...other hormonal contraceptives,such as implants, patches, or combined injectables.



. . andnon-hormonal contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices,are urgently needed, and strategies to improve accessibility anduptake of these lower-dose and non-hormonal methods should beprioritised. Contraceptive counseling should be combined with HIV-1counseling and testing." Charles S Morrison from Clinical Sciences, Durham, USA, wrote in anAccompanying Comment in the same journal: "Active promotion of DMPA in areas with high HIV incidence could becontributing to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, which wouldbe tragic.



Conversely, limiting one of the most highly usedeffective methods of contraception in sub-Saharan Africa wouldprobably contribute to increased maternal mortality and morbidityand more low birthweight babies and orphans - an equally tragicresult. The time to provide a more definitive answer to this criticalpublic health question is now; the donor community should support arandomised trial of hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition." Hormonal contraception There are two main types of hormonal contraceptives: Combined contraceptives - these contain both an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol ) and a progestin. The most popular medication is the combined oralcontraceptive pill (COCP), also known as the pill . It is typically taken once daily for 21 consecutive days,followed by nothing for seven days - there are alternatives to thiscycle.



For those not on ongoing hormonal contraception, COCPs canbe administered after sexual intercourse as emergencycontraception. COCPs are presented in a variety of formulations. Progestogen-only contraceptive - these contain progesterone orprogestin (a synthetic analogue of progesterone). POP (progestogenonly pill) is taken every day, within the same three-hour windoweach day.



There are several different POP formulations. POPs aretaken every day with no breaks. For those not on continuous POPs,POPs can be taken after sexual intercourse as emergency medication.POPs come in a variety of formulations. Ormeloxifene, while not a hormone, acts on the hormonal system toprevent pregnancy. Written by Christian Nordqvist.

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