Biotechnology is a broad spectrum science that uses any living organisms like bacteria, virus, fungi, plant, and animal cells to produce inimitable commodities: an industrial based business for development of bio produce using genetically engineered or modified microbes and animals. Traditional biotechnology provides evidences of bread baking and brewing alcohols that form the layout for the development of this technology. Genetics, molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, microbiology and its genetics, immunology and their applications are few interdisciplinary areas of biotechnology, which leads to advanced and modern biotech. |
Genetic engineering is the process of adding, deleting or modifying a gene of interest according to the need of the produce. New gene technology has resulted in many innovative approaches for production of hybrid yields of plants, crops and chemicals by genetically modified microorganisms. In 1997, the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep marked the success of trangenesis where the DNA of the animals was manipulated to express the desired character or organism. This engineering aims at preparing drugs, improved plants, growth hormones, enzymes and proteins e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were genetically incorporated into plants and crops to farmers that survives pest infestation and yield healthy crops. Bt produces a protein that acts as a toxin to the pests: microbial pest control management. This technology of inserting or modifying the gene of an organism is the recombinant DNA technology (rDNA).
Medicine biotechnology focuses on drug development and production, gene therapy, Human genome project, Pharmacogenomics and genetic testing and screening. rDNA technology enables the invention of genetically engineered Insulin, a cure for diabetics by making a microbe available to secrete insulin for humans. Gene therapy is a method that corrects the genetic birth defects diagnosed in the embryo: a normal gene is inserted to the defective embryo, which expresses normal function by masking the non-functional gene. There are some early diagnostic methods made available by rDNA technology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). PCR is widely used to detect HIV in AIDS patients. Antibiotic and vaccine establishment, transgenic experiments to study the nature of diseases and cures and other medical biotechnology approaches are carried out with the support of Government policies and regulations of Social and ethical issues. Any organization or groups of manufacturers must have a licensed agreement to accepting terms and conditions of Government regulations; violating this regulation (Biopiracy) results in severe compensation and punishment.
Industrial and environmental biotechnology relates with modern biotechnology to increase the efficacy and decrease the industrial impacts to the environment. Biocatalysts, biopolymers, bio plastics, bioremediation, bio surfactants, bio fertilizers and biodegradable materials take the modern concept to commercial market. Textile industry, cosmetic industry and many chemical industries rely for eco friendly harvests. Wastewater management recovers the spoiled soil and sewage water treatment; water acts as biofuel for generators. The most vocal challenges are noted between the benefit and the risks involved in modern biotechnology. Biodiversity conservation comprises a nature-balancing factor. This however promises future with certain amount of risk. The approval and regulation would up bring this modern technology to scale up new trend
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