The universe comprises of physical, chemical and biological system interacting with one another for constructivepurposes. The changes happen in physical and chemical factors due to biological influences and are categorized as physical and chemical changes. Physical changes are reversible and chemical, are irreversible. Chemical changes happen by a series of reactions referred to as ‘chemical reaction’. Chemical reactions transform one type of substance into another. Reactants or reagents participate in the reaction to form new products by the action of enzymes as a catalyst. The factors affecting the chemical reaction rate would be temperature, concentration of the reagents, rate at which reaction happens and its rapidity. |
The symbolical representation of chemical reaction is termed as ‘chemical equations’. There are four basic types of equations: synthesis/combination, decomposition/break down, single displacement/replacement and double displacement/replacement and redox reaction displays the loss and gain of electrons. Synthesis/Combination: Reactantscombines to form a single product e.g. sodium (Na) combines with chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride (NaCl).
2Na + Cl2? 2NaCl Decomposition/breakdown:Single compoundsplits to form 2 or more products e.g. copper carbonate (CuCO3) when heated, decomposes to copper (II) oxide (CuO) and release of carbon dioxide (CO2). CuCO3?CuO + CO2 Single displacement/replacement:A more reactive element displaces or replaces from its compound to less reactive element. Iron (Fe) and copper sulphate (CuSO4) reacts, to produce Iron (II)/ferroussulphate (CuSO4) and Copper (Cu). Here the iron is more reactive than copper displacing it from CuSO4solution. Fe + CuSO4?FeSO4+ Cu Double displacement/replacement:This reaction results in the exchange of ions between two reactants, produces two different replaced products. When sodium sulphate (NaSO4) reacts with barium chloride (BaCl) it forms a precipitate of barium sulphate(BaSO4) due to the ionic exchange of sulphate (SO42-) and barium (Ba2+) and sodium chloride (NaCl) as the other product. NaSO4 + BaCl?BaSO4 + NaCl Oxidation & reduction:Oxygen is the life-sustaining component for all living forms and lack of oxygen leads to deceases. Rusting of iron and fading of cloth colors are some examples of the redox (oxidation – reduction) reaction as it evidences the importance of oxygen. Oxidation is the process of reaction that involves addition of oxygen and removal of hydrogen ions i.e. Loss of electron; reduction refers to the addition of hydrogen and removal of oxygen i.e. gain of electron. E.g. Sodium (Na) combines with chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride (NaCl), the common salt. Sodium loses an electron (donates), becomes oxidized and is the reducing agent whereas chlorine gains an electron (accepts), becomes reduced and is the oxidizing agent. 2Na + Cl2? 2NaCl The diagrammatic representation of chemical equations delivers thoughtful ability about chemical reactions, which enables the interpretations by chemical industries to produce novel and useful products.
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