Hyperthyroidism is an endocrinal disorder caused by excessive secretion of a hormone Thyroxin. It is mostly caused by a malfunctioning Thyroid gland. Sometimes, impaired functioning of Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland is a contributing factor. Thyroid hormone functions on cellular level, thus when its level is affected, it gets reflected all over the body.|
Thyroid storm is the severe condition where thyroid gland releases lot of thyroxin in a short duration of time. It may result into tachycardia, dehydration due to vomiting and diarrhea. It remained untreated; it may further progress into Coma and even death.
• Over activity and restlessness
• Increased body metabolism-increased hunger
• Racing heart
• Excessive sweating-Hot flushes
• Dry, brittle hair, excessive hair loss
• Mood swings
• Inability to concentrate
• Difficulty memorizing.
• Amenorrhea in women
• Graves’ disease- autoimmune disease where thyroid gland is attacked by body’s own immune system. It is often genetic in nature.
• Thyroiditis- Swollen/ Reddened Thyroid gland
• Thyroid nodules/Thyroid adenoma- growth of abnormal structures in thyroid gland. They can be cancerous.
• Postpartum thyroiditis-phenomenon during pregnancy on account of changes in immune system
• Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
• Pituitary gland/Hypothalamus malfunctions
• Exogenous consumption of Thyroid tablets
• Excess iodine consumption
Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is done by simple blood test. Existence of anti-TSH-receptor antibodies is measured in Graves' disease while presence of anti-thyroid-peroxidase is looked for in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.
• Beta blockers-to relieve the symptoms
• Radioactive ionine surgery- where some part of thyroid gland is destroyed. (Not for children and pregnant women)br> • Antithyroid medications (For mild hyperthyroidism)
• Thyroid scintigraphy – where radioisotopes are taken in and emitted radiation is captured by Gamma cameras to project images. Isotopes used- Iodine 131 or Technetium-99m
The treatments can have side effects. One can develop hypothyroidism after surgery. Patients need to discuss possible effects of treatment with specialists in order to reduce the complications.
Medications are required to be taken for a long time. Iodine rich foods are needed to be avoided. Patients are advised to take nutritious diet and regular exercising to fight fatigue. Relaxation techniques like yoga are recommended for psychological welfare. Avoiding stimulants like caffeine, Nicotine is equally important.
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