To accomplish adequate fly control it is helpful to divide the environment into three basic zones, keeping in mind during each aspect of the evaluation, what can be done in each zone to reduce the overall fly activity in each of the critical areas. The overall philosophy of fly control is to reduce the attraction of flies to the general exterior environment. The place to start when making such an evaluation is on the exterior because no matter what steps are taken, there will always be flies on the outside of the building(s). The exterior zone is inspected first because the more that is done to reduce the number of flies on the outside, the fewer the number of flies that will be able to gain entry. When evaluating flying insect management strategies, each building is different and as such will have different needs and problems which must be addressed through an integrated program to achieve satisfactory flying insect control. |
The house fly control is largely based upon the use of chemical insecticides such as organ chlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids. However, use of chemical insecticide is not only detrimental to environment and have undesirable effects on non-target organisms, but its long term use also leads to development of resistance among insects (Thomas and Jespersen, 1994). Injudicious use of these insecticides on large scale particularly in proximity to human food may prove to be toxic to man (Bhatia et al., 2006).
One of the most important environmental factors that we can control is the attraction due to the type of exterior lighting. Wherever possible or feasible, sodium vapor lamps should be used rather than either mercury vapor lamps or incandescent bulbs. The reason for this is simply that mercury vapor and incandescent bulbs emit a much higher concentration of the wavelength of light that attracts insects than the sodium vapor lamps. Therefore, using sodium vapor lamps will significantly reduce the number of flies that are attracted to the area during the evening hours.
FLY TRAPPING, PHEROMONE ATTRACTANTS, & BAITING
In areas where flying insect activity is especially heavy, fly trapping using non-poisonous traps baited with materials attractive to the flying insect most prevalent can significantly further reduce the exterior fly population. These traps are especially effective for instance in the control of yellow-jackets. Loose granules of fly-bait may be applied using an applicator that the flies feed from. This method works by placing fly bait materials in devices designed to optimize fly visitation to the bait stations and is another effective complement to the fly control program in heavily fly-infested exterior areas.
Another effective fly control material that does not attract flies from long distances, which could complicate control, but does a very effective job of attracting the flies in the immediate area is the application of a pheromone-based quick-killing fly feeding material. These dual-purpose fly control devices, using the naturally occurring pheromone flies are most attracted to plus a very quick killing fly bait material, are extremely effective where houseflies are breeding out of control. These key areas include garbage areas, intake and other areas where the spillage of food may attract flies, and any other areas where flies congregate around the building(s). It is important to use pheromone-impregnated material because it contains a naturally occurring sex-attractant chemical that flies are drawn to resulting in excellent fly control.
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