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The History of Surveying by Miriam Drahmane





Article Author Biography
The History of Surveying by
Article Posted: 03/04/2015
Article Views: 449
Articles Written: 16
Word Count: 485
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The History of Surveying


 
Construction,Home Improvement,Environment
Land surveying is the mathematical measurement of the land and surveying techniques date back as far as the Ancient Egyptians. Famous explorers also mapped out the land as they travelled across the world, in many ways similar to the principles of modern day land surveying. One of the earliest records where we have proof that land surveying techniques were used, was in the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza, 2700BC. The ancient Egyptians used rope stretcher techniques to position the pyramid, creating a perfectly square base with a north-south orientation. Explorers and conquers many centuries ago also developed their own techniques when travelling the world; some more accurate than others. Napoleon Bonaparte was a perfectionist and took the art of mapping seriously whilst on his quests around the world. He created detailed drawings and maps of all new land that he found. These were all drawn to scale and although best attempts were made to create tools and instruments to aid measurement techniques, these were often inaccurate. Technology and know-how in gathering topographical and land surveying data has developed dramatically over time. This is evident in the more recent building of the Channel Tunnel, which began in 1986 and is the longest undersea tunnel system in the world. Laser-guided surveying techniques meant there was an error margin of just 2 cm and ensured the tunnels would eventually meet – which they did, thanks to the surveying techniques used, in 1990. The 20th century saw many technological advances, particularly in the area of instrumentation development, including the invention of the Tellurometer and Geodimeter. The Geodimeter was the first Electronic Distance Measurement Equipment (EDM) produced, which measured the phase shift of light. Both instruments offer the ability to measure distances of different points, many kilometres apart. In the 1970’s, advances in electronics enabled EDM technology to reduce in size. This, combined with angle and distance measurements, created more compact instruments known as ‘total stations’. The total station is a development of the theodolite with a built in EDM device and is an essential piece of equipment when conducting a topographical survey. Today total stations are fully computerised, operating on a wireless system and thereby allowing point data to be sent directly from the on-site unit via email to the technical engineer. Other new surveying techniques include 3D laser scanning, which measures highly detailed objects to millimetre accuracy, and GPS surveying, which can produce surveys and maps to the highest accuracy using satellite navigation. Based in Hertfordshire, Terrain Surveys are a professional surveying company with many years of experience. At the forefront of modern technology, Terrain Surveys create an accurate representation of the land and are dedicated to providing all the information required to make your project a success – completing on time and to budget. If you need some friendly guidance and advice, contact Terrain Surveys on 01438 841300 or visit www.terrainsurveys.co.uk for more information.


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