It is important to visit the general dentist Milwaukee regularly to solve most of the dental problems. The dental tissues mainly involved in carious destruction are enamel and dentine. Enamel forms a surface cap of hard, highly mineralized tissue, which acts to resist abrasion of the teeth during mastication. Beneath the enamel, and making up the bulk of the tooth crown and root is the less highly mineralized dentine, which acts as a shock-absorber. Both tissues are mainly composed of mineral crystals known as ‘biological apatite’, a form of calcium phosphate similar in structure to the mineral hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2). In acid conditions, calcium phosphates such as apatite are more soluble than in neutral or alkaline conditions, because the constituent phosphate and hydroxyl ions react with hydrogen ions to form other ionic species. The apatite crystals in teeth are no exception. In the process of caries formation, tooth tissues dissolve in acids, which are produced by bacteria residing in dental plaque, by the fermentation of carbohydrates derived from food. |
‘Fermentable carbohydrates’ in foods are those that can diffuse into plaque and be taken up by the bacterial calls for energy metabolism. Bacterial cells have transport systems which are specific for dietary mono- and disaccharides, but larger oligo and polysaccharides in foods, especially cooked starch and its products, can be hydrolysed to glucose and maltose (by salivary or bacterial amylases) sufficiently rapidly to be taken up by the plaque bacteria before the foods are swallowed. Foods are known as ‘cariogenic’ if during and after ingestion the carbohydrates they contain give rise to a sufficient amount of acid to lead to dissolution.
Dental plaque is a loosely-structured deposit of bacteria within a matrix derived from salivary glycoproteins and bacterial extracellular polysaccharides. The bacteria of plaque arc described as commensal they are neither parasitic nor symbiotic. There are multitudinous species present, some of which are pathogens which give rise to periodontal disease and are mainly fastidious anaerobes. Others, including many gram-positive rods and cocci, produce mainly lactic acid as a result of anaerobic glycolysis of fermentable food carbohydrate, although other pathways and end products are involved also. The species most closely associated with caries are of the genus Streptococcus, and are described as the ‘mutans group’ after the type species. Besides acid formation, the mutans streptococci also form a characteristic extracellular glucan from sucrose which may contribute to the plaque matrix and assist in their retention on the tooth. A visit to general dentist milwaukee could be very informative and keeps the teeth healthy and strong.
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