Amazines Free Article Archive
www.amazines.com - Sunday, August 07, 2022
Read about the most recent changes and happenings at Amazines.com
Log into your account or register as a new author. Start submitting your articles right now!
Search our database for articles.
Subscribe to receive articles emailed straight to your email account. You may choose multiple categories.
View our newest articles submitted by our authors.
View our most top rated articles rated by our visitors.
* Please note that this is NOT the ARTICLE manager
Add a new EZINE, or manage your EZINE submission.
Add fresh, free web content to your site such as newest articles, web tools, and quotes with a single piece of code!
Home What's New? Submit/Manage Articles Latest Posts Top Rated Article Search
Google
Subscriptions Manage Ezines
CATEGORIES
 Article Archive
 Advertising (133525)
 Advice (161580)
 Affiliate Programs (34788)
 Art and Culture (73842)
 Automotive (145680)
 Blogs (75446)
 Boating (9851)
 Books (17221)
 Buddhism (4129)
 Business (1330076)
 Business News (426438)
 Business Opportunities (366485)
 Camping (10971)
 Career (72777)
 Christianity (15845)
 Collecting (11639)
 Communication (115071)
 Computers (241922)
 Construction (38937)
 Consumer (49947)
 Cooking (17079)
 Copywriting (6732)
 Crafts (18205)
 Cuisine (7548)
 Current Affairs (20308)
 Dating (45902)
 EBooks (19700)
 E-Commerce (48247)
 Education (185377)
 Electronics (83517)
 Email (6439)
 Entertainment (159837)
 Environment (28922)
 Ezine (3040)
 Ezine Publishing (5452)
 Ezine Sites (1550)
 Family & Parenting (110929)
 Fashion & Cosmetics (196540)
 Female Entrepreneurs (11851)
 Feng Shui (132)
 Finance & Investment (310510)
 Fitness (106442)
 Food & Beverages (63010)
 Free Web Resources (7939)
 Gambling (30227)
 Gardening (25194)
 Government (10512)
 Health (629905)
 Hinduism (2206)
 Hobbies (44079)
 Home Business (91593)
 Home Improvement (251145)
 Home Repair (46213)
 Humor (4717)
 Import - Export (5456)
 Insurance (45104)
 Interior Design (29591)
 International Property (3488)
 Internet (191011)
 Internet Marketing (146666)
 Investment (22859)
 Islam (1161)
 Judaism (1352)
 Law (80455)
 Link Popularity (4596)
 Manufacturing (20902)
 Marketing (99276)
 MLM (14140)
 Motivation (18232)
 Music (26998)
 New to the Internet (9497)
 Non-Profit Organizations (4048)
 Online Shopping (129728)
 Organizing (7809)
 Party Ideas (11853)
 Pets (38072)
 Poetry (2229)
 Press Release (12687)
 Public Speaking (5640)
 Publishing (7561)
 Quotes (2407)
 Real Estate (126616)
 Recreation & Leisure (95461)
 Relationships (87650)
 Research (16180)
 Sales (80345)
 Science & Technology (110281)
 Search Engines (23497)
 Self Improvement (153287)
 Seniors (6216)
 Sexuality (35998)
 Small Business (49288)
 Software (83018)
 Spiritual (23481)
 Sports (116150)
 Tax (7661)
 Telecommuting (34073)
 Travel & Tourism (308186)
 UK Property Investment (3122)
 Video Games (13382)
 Web Traffic (11764)
 Website Design (56892)
 Website Promotion (36618)
 World News (1000+)
 Writing (35838)
Author Spotlight
GRAEME DIXON

About Octopus Intelligence We provide greater certainty with excellent global Commercial Compe...more
DESIGNPLUZ DIGITALAGENCY

Designpluz has steadily matured from a passionate graphics design start-up, into a full service digi...more
LOUISADIKIBARASIKA BASSEY OKOKON

BIOGRAPHY AND TESTIMONIES OF HOW JESUS CHRIST APPEARED TO HIM. I am Louis Bassey Okokon, born on th...more
MANMOHAN SINGH

Digital marketing professional with 8 years of experience. A good listner, Stratgist and fun loving ...more
AVINASH KABRA

Avinash Kabra is a young & dynamic Technopreneur, Digital Marketer, Blogger, Foodie and Travel Enthu...more


Germany and france can't afford euro-zone bailout - China Long Pulse ND Yag Laser by fdhjkl rfghjtkl





Article Author Biography
Germany and france can't afford euro-zone bailout - China Long Pulse ND Yag Laser by
Article Posted: 01/01/2014
Article Views: 159
Articles Written: 2148
Word Count: 770
Article Votes: 0
AddThis Social Bookmark Button

Germany and france can't afford euro-zone bailout - China Long Pulse ND Yag Laser


 
Business,Business News,Business Opportunities
German and French banks have exposures of around euro 800 billionto the debt issues of peripheral nations. The German and French states have indirect exposure through supportof various official institutions such as the European Union,European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund and specialbailout funds. As of April, the exposure of the ECB to Greece,Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy was euro 918 billion and risingrapidly, driven by capital flight from these countries. German and French guarantees supporting the european FinancialStability Fund are around euro 200 billion each.

Germany also has the additional burden via the Bundesbank s euro644 billion exposure to other central banks in the euro zone underthe TARGET2 ( Trans-european Automated Real-time Gross SettlementExpress Transfer System ), which is designed as a payment systemto settle cross-border funds flows. Surplus countries such as Germany have been forced to use TARGET2to finance peripheral countries without access to money markets asa way of funding trade deficits and offsetting capital flight.Germany is by far the largest creditor in TARGET2. The Netherlands,Finland and Luxembourg are the other creditors, with all other eurozone countries being net debtors within the system. Advocates of European unity believe greater monetary and fiscalintegration is the solution. They argue that the euro zone scurrent account is nearly balanced, its trade account has a smallsurplus, the overall fiscal deficit is modest and the aggregatelevel of public debt is manageable.

But integration would require mutualization of debt through theissue of euro zone bonds backed jointly or severally by all memberstates. Germany s and France s financial exposure would increasethrough their liability for euro-zone bonds. Germany s TARGET2 exposure would also continue to increase, at arate of euro 80-160 billion annually to finance expected tradedeficits in the rest of Europe. The increase in exposure may behigher if needed to finance budget deficits of weaker euro zonemembers and the anemic banking sector.

As political will for integration is lacking, Europe may be forcedto continue the current policy of partial solutions austerityand monetary accommodation by the ECB. As the troubled economiescontinue to be excluded from money markets, the debt of peripheralnations will shift to official institutions via bailouts, fundingarrangements and the TARGET2 system. Germany and France sfinancial liability will increase. Read more: Spain's credit rating cut to just above junk. Expensive solutions In the peripheral economies, continued withdrawal of deposits fromnational banks (a rational choice given currency and confiscationrisk) may necessitate either a Europe-wide deposit guarantee systemor further funding of banks.

A credible deposit insurance schemewould have to be around euro 1.3 trillion in size. A Europeandeposit guarantee system, provision of capital or further fundingof banks would potentially increase Germany and France s financialliability. If integration is not undertaken or the partial solutions fail,then some European countries will need to restructure their debtand potentially leave the common currency. Germany and France wouldsuffer immediate losses. A Greek default would result in losses toGermany of up to euro 90 billion.

France would suffer losses of upto euro 65 billion. Potential losses increase rapidly as more countries default orleave the euro zone. The greater the delay in default or departure,the larger the losses as the exposure increases. Austerity or default will force many European economies intorecession for a prolonged period affecting intra-European trade,including German and French exports.

If the euro continues unchanged, the effects may be cushioned bythe weakness of the currency, which will maintain exportcompetitiveness. But defaults and a breakup of the euro will resultin an increase in the value of the euro, at least in the shortterm, undermining German and French exports outside the euro zone. Defaults or partial breakup of the euro would also leave German andFrench banks with significant losses, potentially necessitatingstate support and further increasing the respective liabilities. Decisive early action forcing weaker countries to restructuredebt and perhaps leave the euro would have avoided getting tothis point in the crisis.

Like amputation of an infected limb, itwould have allowed the euro zone to weather the debt crisis.Unfortunately, the problems are now too big relative to the size ofthe economies and financial capabilities of the larger members,Germany and France. These two nations are now financially vulnerable, facing cripplingcosts irrespective of the course of events, and making iteconomically, financially, socially and politically difficult todeal with the problem. Satyajit Das is author of Extreme Money: The Masters of theUniverse and the Cult of Risk.

We are high quality suppliers, our products such as China Long Pulse ND Yag Laser , Er Yag Laser for oversee buyer. To know more, please visits Q Switched Nd Yag Laser.

Related Articles - China Long Pulse ND Yag Laser, Er Yag Laser,

Email this Article to a Friend!

Receive Articles like this one direct to your email box!
Subscribe for free today!

 Rate This Article  
Completely useless, should be removed from directory.
Minimal useful information.
Decent and informative.
Great article, very informative and helpful.
A 'Must Read'.

 

Do you Agree or Disagree? Have a Comment? POST IT!

 Reader Opinions 
Submit your comments and they will be posted here.
Make this comment or to the Author only:
Name:
Email:
*Your email will NOT be posted. This is for administrative purposes only.
Comments: *Your Comments WILL be posted to the AUTHOR ONLY if you select PRIVATE and to this PUBLIC PAGE if you select PUBLIC, so write accordingly.
 
Please enter the code in the image:



 Author Login 
LOGIN
Register for Author Account

 

Advertiser Login

 

ADVERTISE HERE NOW!
   Limited Time $60 Offer!
   90  Days-1.5 Million Views  

 

Great Paranormal Romance


STEPHEN BYE

Steve Bye is currently a fiction writer, who published his first novel, ‘Looking Forward Through the...more
STEVERT MCKENZIE

Stevert Mckenzie, Travel Enthusiast. ...more
GENE MYERS

Author of four books and two screenplays; frequent magazine contributor. I have four other books "in...more
ADRIAN JOELE

I have been involved in nutrition and weight management for over 12 years and I like to share my kn...more
TIM FAY

After 60-plus years of living I am just trying to pass down some of the information that I have lear...more
SHALINI MITTAL

A postgraduate in Fashion Technology. Shalini is a writer at heart! Writing for her is an expression...more
WILLIAM BUCHANAN

William Buchanan has worked in the fields of marketing, advertising, and marketing research for almo...more
SUSAN FRIESEN

Susan Friesen, founder of the award-winning web development and digital marketing firm eVision Media...more
LAURA JEEVES

At LeadGenerators, we specialise in content-led Online Marketing Strategies for our clients in the t...more
LINDA DECANN

Linda DeCann is US based pursuing her career as brand ambassador. Previously she has helped hundreds...more

HomeLinksAbout UsContact UsTerms of UsePrivacy PolicyFAQResources
Copyright © 2022, All rights reserved.
Some pages may contain portions of text relating to certain topics obtained from wikipedia.org under the GNU FDL license