Amazines Free Article Archive - Saturday, March 25, 2023
Read about the most recent changes and happenings at
Log into your account or register as a new author. Start submitting your articles right now!
Search our database for articles.
Subscribe to receive articles emailed straight to your email account. You may choose multiple categories.
View our newest articles submitted by our authors.
View our most top rated articles rated by our visitors.
* Please note that this is NOT the ARTICLE manager
Add a new EZINE, or manage your EZINE submission.
Add fresh, free web content to your site such as newest articles, web tools, and quotes with a single piece of code!
Home What's New? Submit/Manage Articles Latest Posts Top Rated Article Search
Subscriptions Manage Ezines
 Article Archive
 Advertising (133550)
 Advice (161623)
 Affiliate Programs (34790)
 Art and Culture (73851)
 Automotive (145701)
 Blogs (75556)
 Boating (9851)
 Books (17223)
 Buddhism (4129)
 Business (1330458)
 Business News (426439)
 Business Opportunities (366510)
 Camping (10972)
 Career (72794)
 Christianity (15847)
 Collecting (11639)
 Communication (115087)
 Computers (241945)
 Construction (38959)
 Consumer (49953)
 Cooking (17081)
 Copywriting (6732)
 Crafts (18205)
 Cuisine (7549)
 Current Affairs (20313)
 Dating (45907)
 EBooks (19703)
 E-Commerce (48256)
 Education (185507)
 Electronics (83520)
 Email (6439)
 Entertainment (159844)
 Environment (28938)
 Ezine (3040)
 Ezine Publishing (5453)
 Ezine Sites (1551)
 Family & Parenting (111001)
 Fashion & Cosmetics (196588)
 Female Entrepreneurs (11853)
 Feng Shui (133)
 Finance & Investment (310605)
 Fitness (106448)
 Food & Beverages (63029)
 Free Web Resources (7939)
 Gambling (30227)
 Gardening (25202)
 Government (10515)
 Health (630033)
 Hinduism (2206)
 Hobbies (44081)
 Home Business (91605)
 Home Improvement (251199)
 Home Repair (46232)
 Humor (4719)
 Import - Export (5456)
 Insurance (45104)
 Interior Design (29613)
 International Property (3488)
 Internet (191023)
 Internet Marketing (146684)
 Investment (22860)
 Islam (1161)
 Judaism (1352)
 Law (80492)
 Link Popularity (4596)
 Manufacturing (20905)
 Marketing (99304)
 MLM (14140)
 Motivation (18233)
 Music (26999)
 New to the Internet (9497)
 Non-Profit Organizations (4048)
 Online Shopping (129734)
 Organizing (7811)
 Party Ideas (11855)
 Pets (38162)
 Poetry (2229)
 Press Release (12689)
 Public Speaking (5641)
 Publishing (7565)
 Quotes (2407)
 Real Estate (126634)
 Recreation & Leisure (95470)
 Relationships (87661)
 Research (16181)
 Sales (80347)
 Science & Technology (110284)
 Search Engines (23513)
 Self Improvement (153291)
 Seniors (6218)
 Sexuality (36008)
 Small Business (49301)
 Software (83026)
 Spiritual (23503)
 Sports (116154)
 Tax (7663)
 Telecommuting (34073)
 Travel & Tourism (308231)
 UK Property Investment (3123)
 Video Games (13382)
 Web Traffic (11788)
 Website Design (56916)
 Website Promotion (36663)
 World News (1000+)
 Writing (35843)
Author Spotlight

I am a passionate article and blog writer based in South Africa. With a love for life and a strong d...more

You will feel a different sort of happiness as you associate yourself with any animal, you will be a...more

Myself Ram Sewak possessing indepth domain experience of more than 10 years in SEO, SEM, Web Develop...more

Pai da Júlia e do Pedro. Especialista em Marketing Digital, com MBA em e-Business pela FGV. Formado ...more

About Octopus Intelligence We provide greater certainty with excellent global Commercial Compe...more

Comparison of Precipitation Measurement Technologies - Rain Gauges by Martha Khoury

Comparison of Precipitation Measurement Technologies - Rain Gauges by
Article Posted: 01/25/2021
Article Views: 1066
Articles Written: 9
Word Count: 754
Article Votes: 0
AddThis Social Bookmark Button

Comparison of Precipitation Measurement Technologies - Rain Gauges

Science & Technology,Research,Environment
This resource delineates the different rainfall measurement technologies with each weather station model available from Columbia Weather Systems.

Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Technology: The tipping bucket gauge consists of a collector funnel with a knife edge that diverts water to a tipping bucket mechanism. The mechanism is so designed that one alternate tip of the bucket occurs for each 0.01 inch of rainfall accumulation. A magnet is attached to the tipping bucket, which, as the bucket tips, actuates a magnetic switch to signal the accumulation to the data logger.

Pros: Tipping buckets are the most widely used rain sensors in the world. The technology has been around for a long time and the mechanism is simple and mechanical.

This sensor is low cost and very reliable.

Cons: The accuracy of the tipping bucket sensor is based on a specific rainfall rate. Higher rainfall rates tend to introduce more error in readings.

Susceptible to error due to evaporation, splashing, and high wind.

For accurate readings, the sensor must be level with no vibration.

Sensor should be checked regularly to make sure it is not clogged with debris.

Applications: Best used when rainfall accumulation is compared to other tipping bucket sensors.

Weather Station: The tipping bucket gauge is used with the Capricorn FLX and also interfaces with the digital channel on the Weather MicroServer for use with any other model. See below for the Pulsar 601 with Tipping Bucket Raingauge.

Capricorn FLX Tipping Bucket Raingauge Specifications:

Resolution: 0.01”

Accuracy: ±1% at 2 in./hr or less

Collection Diameter: 6”

Heating option is available to measure snowfall as rain accumulation.

Pulsar 601 Tipping Bucket Raingauge Specifications:

Resolution: 0.2mm

Accuracy: ±2%

Maximum intensity: 144 mm/hr

Impact Sensor (Orion) Technology: The rainfall measurement is based on an impact sensor, which detects the impact of individual rain drops. The signals exerting from the impacts are proportional to the volume of the drops. Hence, the signal from each drop can be converted directly to the accumulated rainfall. Due to the measurement method, flooding, clogging as well as wetting and evaporation losses in rain measurement are eliminated.

Pros: Requires no maintenance. Accurate under heavy rainfall rates. Is not affected by clogging and evaporation.

Able to detect hail.

High resolution output.

Cons: Under reports under misty and light rainfall conditions.

Applications: Ideal for weather station installation that has low maintenance requirements.

Weather Station: This sensor is available with the Orion weather station.


Collection Area: 60 cm2 Accuracy: ±5% (spatial variations may exist) Resolution 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm)

Doppler Radar Sensor (Pulsar 100, 600, 700, 800) Technology: Precipitation is measured by a 24 GHz Doppler radar which measures the drop speed of an individual drop of rain or snow. Precipitation quantity and intensity are calculated from the correlation between drop size and speed. The Doppler radar sensor is able to sense (measure) rain drops size between 0.3 mm and 5.0 mm.

Pros: The sensor is fast responding with a resolution of 0.0004 inches (0.01 mm).

Able to differentiate between snow and rain.

Cons: The accuracy decreases when drop size is outside of the measurement range.

Applications: The sensor is ideal for applications that require high resolution in order to report start of rainfall. For example, the tipping bucket rain gauge will not report rainfall until it reaches 0.01” accumulation. The Doppler radar sensor will report rainfall when accumulation reaches 0.0004”.

Weather Station: This sensor is available with the Pulsar 600 weather station.


Measuring Range: Drop size 0.3 - 5mm Resolution: 0.0004” (0.01 mm) Reproducibility: typ>90% Type: Rain / Snow

Optical Sensor (Magellan MX600) Technology: An integrated optical rain gauge that automatically senses water hitting its outside surface and provides measurements based on the size and number of drops. Algorithms interpret this data and simulate the output of a tipping bucket rain gauge.

Pros: Provides rain measurement for systems that require a transmitter with GPS and electronics compass.

The optical rain gauge has no moving parts associated with tipping bucket gauges. It is mostly used in applications where rain accumulation accuracy is not critical.

Cons: Low accuracy and resolution.

Applications: Best used for mobile and portable applications for general monitoring such as recording precipitation event and duration. Application such as vehicle track testing, power transmission line monitoring, and aircraft testing.

Weather Station: This sensor is available with the Magellan MX600 weather station with GPS.


Resolution: 0.01inch Range: 0 to >12 inches/hr Repeatability: 3%

Contact Columbia Weather Systems for information about which technology is best for your precipitation monitoring application.

Related Articles - rain, precipitation, rainfall,

Email this Article to a Friend!

Receive Articles like this one direct to your email box!
Subscribe for free today!

 Rate This Article  
Completely useless, should be removed from directory.
Minimal useful information.
Decent and informative.
Great article, very informative and helpful.
A 'Must Read'.


Do you Agree or Disagree? Have a Comment? POST IT!

 Reader Opinions 
Submit your comments and they will be posted here.
Make this comment or to the Author only:
*Your email will NOT be posted. This is for administrative purposes only.
Comments: *Your Comments WILL be posted to the AUTHOR ONLY if you select PRIVATE and to this PUBLIC PAGE if you select PUBLIC, so write accordingly.
Please enter the code in the image:

 Author Login 
Register for Author Account


Advertiser Login


   Limited Time $60 Offer!
   90  Days-1.5 Million Views  


Great Paranormal Romance


After 60-plus years of living, I am just trying to pass down some of the information that I have lea...more

Steve Bye is currently a fiction writer, who published his first novel, ‘Looking Forward Through the...more

Author of four books and two screenplays; frequent magazine contributor. I have four other books "in...more

At LeadGenerators, we specialise in content-led Online Marketing Strategies for our clients in the t...more

I'm an educationist and occasional writer ...more

Stevert Mckenzie, Travel Enthusiast. ...more

Susan Friesen, founder of the award-winning web development and digital marketing firm eVision Media...more

Since 2015 I have worked in the Marketing Industry and most recently in the field of SEO (Search Eng...more

I have been involved in nutrition and weight management for over 12 years and I like to share my kn...more

I am the editor of QUAY Magazine, a B2B publication based in the South West of the UK. I am also the...more

HomeLinksAbout UsContact UsTerms of UsePrivacy PolicyFAQResources
Copyright © 2023, All rights reserved.
Some pages may contain portions of text relating to certain topics obtained from under the GNU FDL license