Amazines Free Article Archive - Saturday, October 16, 2021
Read about the most recent changes and happenings at
Log into your account or register as a new author. Start submitting your articles right now!
Search our database for articles.
Subscribe to receive articles emailed straight to your email account. You may choose multiple categories.
View our newest articles submitted by our authors.
View our most top rated articles rated by our visitors.
* Please note that this is NOT the ARTICLE manager
Add a new EZINE, or manage your EZINE submission.
Add fresh, free web content to your site such as newest articles, web tools, and quotes with a single piece of code!
Home What's New? Submit/Manage Articles Latest Posts Top Rated Article Search
Subscriptions Manage Ezines
 Article Archive
 Advertising (133488)
 Advice (161521)
 Affiliate Programs (34775)
 Art and Culture (73791)
 Automotive (145661)
 Blogs (75348)
 Boating (9850)
 Books (17220)
 Buddhism (4129)
 Business (1329644)
 Business News (426400)
 Business Opportunities (366405)
 Camping (10968)
 Career (72761)
 Christianity (15842)
 Collecting (11638)
 Communication (115070)
 Computers (241901)
 Construction (38917)
 Consumer (49931)
 Cooking (17075)
 Copywriting (6718)
 Crafts (18203)
 Cuisine (7543)
 Current Affairs (20304)
 Dating (45897)
 EBooks (19699)
 E-Commerce (48240)
 Education (185349)
 Electronics (83504)
 Email (6428)
 Entertainment (159836)
 Environment (28918)
 Ezine (3039)
 Ezine Publishing (5453)
 Ezine Sites (1550)
 Family & Parenting (110920)
 Fashion & Cosmetics (196512)
 Female Entrepreneurs (11847)
 Feng Shui (131)
 Finance & Investment (310481)
 Fitness (106409)
 Food & Beverages (62959)
 Free Web Resources (7939)
 Gambling (30224)
 Gardening (25191)
 Government (10510)
 Health (629746)
 Hinduism (2206)
 Hobbies (44056)
 Home Business (91589)
 Home Improvement (251081)
 Home Repair (46199)
 Humor (4715)
 Import - Export (5454)
 Insurance (45100)
 Interior Design (29588)
 International Property (3487)
 Internet (190995)
 Internet Marketing (146624)
 Investment (22848)
 Islam (1161)
 Judaism (1352)
 Law (80445)
 Link Popularity (4595)
 Manufacturing (20889)
 Marketing (99217)
 MLM (14139)
 Motivation (18221)
 Music (26991)
 New to the Internet (9496)
 Non-Profit Organizations (4048)
 Online Shopping (129700)
 Organizing (7809)
 Party Ideas (11852)
 Pets (38067)
 Poetry (2229)
 Press Release (12687)
 Public Speaking (5638)
 Publishing (7559)
 Quotes (2407)
 Real Estate (126561)
 Recreation & Leisure (95423)
 Relationships (87642)
 Research (16180)
 Sales (80343)
 Science & Technology (110272)
 Search Engines (23491)
 Self Improvement (153246)
 Seniors (6215)
 Sexuality (35990)
 Small Business (49277)
 Software (83015)
 Spiritual (23460)
 Sports (116122)
 Tax (7659)
 Telecommuting (34069)
 Travel & Tourism (308042)
 UK Property Investment (3121)
 Video Games (13382)
 Web Traffic (11750)
 Website Design (56852)
 Website Promotion (36606)
 World News (1000+)
 Writing (35821)
Author Spotlight

I'm an avid consumer of a smoothie a day living, herbs, vitamins and daily dose of exercise. I'm 60...more

Oleg has been providing SEO, Copywriting and Content Management services for 10+ years. For the last...more

I'm Ellisen, nice to meet you! Obviously you're here because you want to know who I am. Wel...more

I’m Derik Parley 34yrs old from Australia. I am enthusiastic about taking up new challenges in life....more

Former English Teacher; Musician (20+ years); Freelance Writer ...more

Comparison of Solar Radiation Sensors by Martha Khoury

Comparison of Solar Radiation Sensors by
Article Posted: 01/05/2021
Article Views: 471
Articles Written: 9
Word Count: 846
Article Votes: 0
AddThis Social Bookmark Button

Comparison of Solar Radiation Sensors

Environment,Science & Technology
Various solar radiation sensors are available with the modular Capricorn FLX Weather Station and/or with the Weather MicroServer for all weather station models. Additionally, the Magellan MX and Pulsar Weather Stations offer all-in-one sensor modules with integrated solar radiation measurement.

ISO classifications “secondary standard,” “first class,” and “second class” correspond to the World Meteorological Organization categories “High quality,” “Good quality,” and “Moderate quality.”

Silicone-based Pyranometer This sensor is calibrated to measure the shortwave radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, measured in Watts per square meter. Silicon pyranometers are generally less expensive than thermopile sensors, yet often sufficient for many requirements.


– Low cost – Sensor head is potted solid to prevent internal condensation in humid environments – Self-cleaning dome-shaped head prevents water accumulation Applications: General purpose solar monitoring.


ISO classification: None Cosine Response: 45° zenith angle ± 1%, 75° zenith angle ± 5% Absolute Accuracy: ± 5% Uniformity: ± 3% Repeatability: ± 1% Output Responsivity: 0.200 mV per W/m² Linear Range: 0 - 350 mV (0 - 1,750 W/m²) Sensitivity: Custom calibrated to exactly 0.5 W/m² per mV Input Power: 5 volts DC Operating Environment: - 40 to 55 °C; 0 to 100% relative humidity. Designed for continuous outdoor use Materials: Anodized aluminum with acrylic lens Dimensions: 2.4 cm diameter, 2.75 cm high

Second Class Pyranometer

Thermopile-based Pyranometer: Second Class This thermopile sensor meets ISO 9060 Second Class requirements. It measures solar radiation received by a plane surface, in W/m², from a 180° field of view angle.


Easy mounting and installation Applications: Ideal for general solar radiation measurements in meteorological networks and photovoltaic monitoring.


ISO classification: ISO 9060 Second Class Spectral range: 280 to 3000 nm Calibration Uncertainty: < 1.8% (k=2) Operating Temperature Range: -40 to +80°C Output: 0 to 1VDC

First Class Pyranometer

Thermopile-based Pyranometer: First Class This thermopile sensor meets ISO 9060:1990 First Class requirements and features a sixty-four thermocouple junction (series connected) sensing element. The sensing element is coated with a highly stable carbon based non-organic coating, which delivers excellent spectral absorption and long term stability characteristics. It has improved performance due to the increased thermal mass and the double glass dome construction.


Accurate solar radiation measurements Durable Applications: Operations that require accurate data for photovoltaic power.


ISO classification: ISO 9060:1990 First Class Spectral range (20% point): 280 to 3000 nm Spectral range (50% point): 285 to 2800 nm Response time (63%): <1.5 s Response time (95%): <12 s Zero offset A: <10 W/m² Zero offset B: <4 W/m² Directional response (up to 80° with 1000 W/m² beam): <15 W/m² Temperature dependence of sensitivity (-40°C to +70°C): <3% Output: 0 to 1VDC

Secondary Standard Pyranometer

Thermopile-based Pyranometer: Secondary Standard This thermopile sensor meets ISO 9060:1990 Secondary Standard requirements (highest possible ISO pyranometer performance category). It extends this quality to applications where maintenance is difficult and/or forms a major part of the cost of ownership.

The sensor uses a temperature compensated detector and has better linearity and long-term stability, lower thermal offset and faster response than a first class pyranometer.

The faster response time meets the requirements for solar energy monitoring.


Accurate solar radiation measurements Internal drying cartridge that will last for at least 10 years if the housing is not opened Applications: Operations that require accurate data for photovoltaic power.


ISO classification: ISO 9060 Secondary Standard Spectral range (50% point): 285 to 2800 nm Response time (63%): <0.7 s Response time (95%): <2 s Zero offset A: <7 W/m² Zero offset B: <2 W/m² Directional response (up to 80° with 1000 W/m² beam): <10 W/m² Temperature dependence of sensitivity (-40°C to +70°C): <1% Output: 0 to 1VDC

Magellan MX 501 with solar radiation sensor

Magellan MX Weather Station model 501 incorporates a silicon photodiode radiation sensor in the all-in-one sensor configuration including wind speed/direction, air pressure, temperature, relative humidity, compass and GPS.

Wavelength Sensitivity: 300 to 3000 nm Output Range: 0 to 1600 W/m² Resolution: 1 W/m² DIN Standard: IS0 9060 Second Class Sampling Rate: 1 Hz Units: W/m²

Pulsar Weather Station model 501 integrates a second class thermopile solar radiation sensor in an all-in-one sensor housing with ultrasonic wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, and electronic compass.

Model 501 ISO classification: Second Class Response time (95%): <18s Non-stability (change/year): <1% Non-linearity (0 to 1,000 W/m²): <1% Directional error (at 80° with 1,000 W/m²): <20 W/m² Temperature dependence of sensitivity: ±5% (-10 to +40°C) Tilt error at 1,000 W/m²: <1% Spectral range (50% points): 300 to 2800 nm Maximum irradiance: 1400 W/m²

Pulsar Weather Station models 800, 700, and 502 incorporate a silicon photodiode radiation sensor in the all-in-one multi-parameter sensor configuration. Model 502 offers ultrasonic wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, electronic compass. Model 700 and 800 add Doppler Radar precipitation measurement. Model 800 also adds lightning detection.

Models 800, 700, 502 Response time (95%): <1 s Unit: W/m² Accuracy: 5% Spectral range (50%points): 300 to 1100 nm Measuring range: 1400 W/m²

See article with links to sensor options at :

Related Articles - solar radiation, solar measurement,

Email this Article to a Friend!

Receive Articles like this one direct to your email box!
Subscribe for free today!

 Rate This Article  
Completely useless, should be removed from directory.
Minimal useful information.
Decent and informative.
Great article, very informative and helpful.
A 'Must Read'.


Do you Agree or Disagree? Have a Comment? POST IT!

 Reader Opinions 
Submit your comments and they will be posted here.
Make this comment or to the Author only:
*Your email will NOT be posted. This is for administrative purposes only.
Comments: *Your Comments WILL be posted to the AUTHOR ONLY if you select PRIVATE and to this PUBLIC PAGE if you select PUBLIC, so write accordingly.
Please enter the code in the image:

 Author Login 
Register for Author Account


Advertiser Login


   Limited Time $60 Offer!
   90  Days-1.5 Million Views  


Great Paranormal Romance


I have been involved in nutrition and weight management for over 12 years and I like to share my kn...more

Ryan Jones owns and operates this website, Having worked in the computer industry sin...more

I am not a writer nor am I trying to become a writer. I am an average person with average intelligen...more

Steve Bye is currently a fiction writer, who published his first novel, ‘Looking Forward Through The...more

At LeadGenerators, we specialise in content-led Online Marketing Strategies for our clients in the t...more

Stevert Mckenzie, Travel Enthusiast. ...more

Skin Muk is the best vegan skin care in Australia because our products are primarily produced from n...more

Akshay Chopra is an experienced certified personal trainer and the founder of WERSTUID. An organizat...more

Steve Burgess is a freelance technology writer, a practicing computer forensics specialist as the pr...more

I love to research products and write reviews only high-quality useful products. ...more

HomeLinksAbout UsContact UsTerms of UsePrivacy PolicyFAQResources
Copyright © 2021, All rights reserved.
Some pages may contain portions of text relating to certain topics obtained from under the GNU FDL license