Valve is the industrial and national economic departments indispensable fluid control did not prepare. The industrial development and needs, promoting the valve industry. In recent years, to meet the new requirements in all aspects of high parameters at the same time, the valve structure, materials and production processes, etc. on how to achieve better performance, reliability and lower costs, also pay close attention to.|
Valve industry conditions abroad
With the foreign modern rapid development of big industry, valve industry, the development of production is also very fast. People in about 50 years ago, a number of countries to form an independent system of valves and industry professionals, with the valve industry valve professional organizations or academic organization. For example: Europe, the United States and Britain, there is the valve industry associations; Japan Valve Industry Research Council and the valves; move Europe and the former Soviet Union valve. The design of research institutes. The valve industry and professional organizations, are designed to improve the production technology and the needs of foreign competition, formed up. Several major industrial valve industry in developed countries is currently constituted as follows.
The valve industry, the number of workers (in 1990 as an example) the United States, 77500 employees, of which 70% of workers, technology and management personnel accounted for 30%; United Kingdom 80000 people; Germany 52500; the Japan 35,000; Italy l5000 people; France 11519 people.
The total number of U.S. valve manufacturing company 900, the largest number of 3,500 enterprises; Japan 1507, the largest number of 900 enterprises; German 450, the largest number of 3300 business people; English 490, the largest number of 1,100 enterprises; France 400, the largest Number 1000; can be seen that the valve the largest number of manufacturing enterprises in Japan, the largest number of workers the United States. Valve industry workers in Japan is only half of the United States, while the total number of enterprises nearly twice as high. Compared with the United States, Japan, the valve industry, small and medium-dominated, there are about 250 large enterprises. Access to 80 years, States have the valve industry, the small number of workers with the degree of decrease, while reductions of the most people in France, 21,000 from the 80's was reduced to 80 at the end (1988) 1l519 of people.
Valve output (in 1990 as an example) United States 10.74 billion U.S. dollars Germany 7.958 billion German marks Japan ¥ 484,143,000,000 Fatou about 6.1 billion francs (1987) United Kingdom 6.Ol billion pounds (1986) 2.4 Valve international trade International Valve trade market is very active in recent years, competition is quite fierce. Is strong in Germany and the U.S.. Germany is the world's largest exporter of valves. Italian people in 1985 volume of trade than the United States Lee valves, ranking second. In 1987 on the valve industry in the developed countries the proportion of the total import and export volume were: Germany 22.2, Italy, l6.5%, U.S. 10.9%, Japan l0.7%, France 9.7%. 1985 import and export trade, the world's top eight ranked the valve is as follows: 2739.8 million German Mark German, Italian people benefit 2l27.5 millions German Mark, U.S. 1833.I one million German marks, Japan, 1683.5 million deutsche mark, France, 1545.7 one million German marks, British l376.7 one million German marks.
Technical level of foreign trade valve
Sets the level of 20 years, as foreign large-scale package technology development, there has been a series of new sets of equipment and single. And valves related to the development of new complete sets of equipment is characterized by large-scale, high-parametric, high-performance automation and complete sets of technology. Refinery equipment: the largest oil refinery 36.4 million t / year (the Caribbean, Virgin Islands), 30 million t / year (Venezuela). Currently 20 million t / year oil refinery in more than nearly 30. The largest oil refinery processing unit capacities: Crude Oil Unit 24 million t / year, FCCU 8.24 million t / year, 5.69 million Reformer t / year, hydrocracking unit 3.2 million t / year. Oil, gas long-distance pipeline equipment: In recent years, rapid development of long-distance pipeline. Mainly as a low-cost rail transport is only about 1 / 3; second is buried in the ground, not easy to damage; three pipeline construction is a fast, low investment. The longest oil pipeline 4830Km (Iran) and 4665 Km (the former Soviet Union, friendship line). Maximum transmission oil pipelines 4578km (the United States, Houston to New York). The longest gas pipeline 7680 km (from Alaska through Canada to the western United States). Maximum pipe diameter of 1620 and proposed 2500. The maximum pressure transmission pipeline 9 ~ 12MPa. Ammonia Equipment: Maximum 540,000 t / year and 500,000 t / year. Ethylene equipment: maximum capacity of 500,000 t / year to 800,000 t / year. Maximum capacity of the units power generation equipment: dual-axis thermal power unit l30 million kW (United States, Switzerland-made), uniaxial thermal power 1.2 million kw (former Soviet Union), the largest nuclear power plant 1.3 million kW (Germany), with these complete sets of equipment supporting the largest valve path with the highest pressure: the largest flat valve diameter 1620mm, 2000 and 3050 roll (USA, Japan);'s largest butterfly diameter 9750mm (United Kingdom Bowen designs, Switzerland made); the largest ball diameter 3050mm, is not Drive the weight of 184t (Swiss-made, the United States Tano state): Max Water valve diameter 2750mm, 9 MPa (Japan). Equipment, large-scale economic effect: To sum up, first, improve production efficiency, and reducing infrastructure investment, three is to reduce the raw materials of consumption. With annual handling capacity of 5 million t of oil refining equipment and compared to 1 million t per t decrease in investment in production capacity by 50%. A 6 million t / year refinery and two 3 million t / year oil refinery comparison, the investment is only about 69% of the latter, steel consumption is 53%, covers an area of 54%, production cost is 75%, The labor productivity has increased to l 70%. An annual output of 200,000 t of synthetic ammonia equipment, power consumption per ton of product to 1450kW. h, the new annual output of 460,000 t devices, power consumption per tonne of product decreased to 50 kw / h. Is only equivalent to 200,000 t-class equipment, the power consumption of 1 / 290,000 kW generating units, compared with 200,000 units, equipment, unit power cost decreased by 10% to 20%, power station construction costs, unit power, steel consumption and production reduce their working hours by 20%.
Complete sets of equipment, level of automation, foreign petrochemicals. Company mainly produces the process of direct digital control has been achieved, and some have also achieved a computer hierarchical control. Ethylene ammonia, urea, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber and synthetic plastics, and other chemical companies to achieve the universal circuit detection, alarm, and some closed-loop control to achieve optimal control and local. 200,000 kW or more large generating units in general, to the development of computer control. General use computer-controlled nuclear power plant. Long-distance pipeline system in many countries to use computer-controlled and equipped with microwave communication systems, the total only 2 --- 3 control room officers on duty. Through the TV monitor across the board work. These complete sets of equipment control method also requires a corresponding valve. So, the past 20 years, foreign valve control method also has great development. Apart from the general manual, mechanical, electric, pneumatic, hydraulic transmission, the electro-hydraulic connections, gas-liquid companies, the growing variety of automatic control valves, and a further development of the trend.
Series of species level with the various types of complete sets of equipment, process and performance improvement, foreign valve series varieties is increasing in recent years, there have been many new varieties of valves.
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