Sensor measures magnitude of physical object and converts the same into readable signals which are then routed to the controller. In fact, it is part of transducer which changes various magnetic, mechanical, thermal and chemical beam current. In this way, transducers convert electrical energy into on-electrical energy like light or sound. |
Sensors and Transducers Used in Robots With the advancements of automation technology, both transducers and sensors are developing faster. In order to make control system and automation system more reliable, sensors and transducers are highly required. For the application of complicated automation systems, Field Robotics plays a vital role here. There are two types of sensors used in Field Robotics –
1. Internal Sensors: Mounted on the robotic body, internal sensors determine velocity, acceleration, position and orientation of myriad mechanical parts and internal connections of the robot.
2. External Sensors: Mounted outside the robotic body, external sensors are used for:
a. Security: The main aim to include robots is to provide components, equipments and people around them. b. Guidance: The categories of robots which guide the people are large but it can be elaborated with this example. There are sensors and transducers work in robots to do this. Sensors detect signal in order to transfer the required information to the next system and its roles and signals follow transducers.
Sensors in Robots 1. Thermal Sensor: It detects the symptoms of temperature and heat changes of objects of a particular object in a dimension. Thermistors, Bimetal, Thermocouples, RTD, photo diodes, photo transistors, photovoltaic, photo multiplier, hygrometer and infrared phyrometer are the examples of thermal sensor. 2. Mechanical Sensors: It detects changes in robotic motions like straight or circular motion, shift, position, displacement, flow, level etc. Differential Linear Variable Transformer (LVDT), proximity sensors, strain gauge, potentiometers, load cell etc. are the examples of Mechanical Sensors.
3. Optical Sensor: It detects light source or light changes or light reflection. For instance, photo transistor, photo diode, photo voltaic, optical pyrometer and photo multiplier.
Transducers in Robots 1. Self-Generating: This type of transducer is required in only one source of energy such as thermistor, photo voltaic, thermocouple and etc. This type of transducer directly generates energy being a voltage source.
2. External Power: This is the type of transducer requires power from the outside in order to produce an output. For instance, Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT), Strain Gauge, Resistance Thermal Detector (RTD), NTC etc.
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